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Character Counts
Freemasonry USA’s National Treasure and
Source of Our Founding Fathers’ Original Intent

by Michael Glenn Maness

www.PreciousHeart.net/freemasonry

Appendices 1-8

Originally the back of Character Counts, placed here to save space,
and these together constitute a book themselves—
here for the world to see—for more light

Appendix 1. Freemason Internet Sites

Appendix 2. Character—the Sum of Virtues – 30 Lists

Appendix 3. George Bush’s Presidential Proclamation

Appendix 4. James L. Holly’s Anti-Mason Efforts

Appendix 5 Founding Fathers in More Light: Barton, LeHaye, & History

Introduction to Founding Father Analysis

      Chart 8. Barton’s Founding Fathers in More Light

A. Founding Era – 1760-1805 – Men 16 Years Old+ in 1776

B. Founding Era – 1760-1805 – Men 16 Years Old+ by 1789

C. Founding Era – 1760-1805 –Younger than 16 Years Old by 1789

D. Founding Era – 1760-1805 –NOT Founders or New Residents

E. Outside Founding Era – Born Before 1760

F. Outside Founding Era – Born After 1773, Children <16 Years 1789

G. Clergymen = 48 in Barton

H. Tim LaHaye’s 54 Founding Fathers

I. 33 Freemason Generals in Continental Army

J. 85 More Freemason Founding Fathers Not in Barton or LeHaye

Appendix 6. E-Mails to Paige Patterson & SBC Experts

Appendix 7. Gary Leazer’s Fundamentalism & Freemasonry

Appendix 8. Teeny-Tiny Applications of 8 Groups of 8 Proofs

Little Bibliography in 8 Sets a Little Annotated

 

Appendix 1. Freemason Internet Sites

The order is, roughly, from information to history to Grand Lodges.

On “What is Freemasonry?” the following is the text of a leaflet published by the Board of General Purposes of the United Grand Lodge of England in 1984:

http://web.mit.edu/dryfoo/Masonry/Essays/ugl-whatis.html  

Macoy Publishing & Masonic Supply, www.macoy.com, the oldest Freemasonry publishing and supply company, since 1849.

Freemasons-Freemasonry.com, a huge premier site with many of the classic works available to read on-line, including Albert Pike, A. G. Mackey.

Masonic Service Association of North America, www.msana.com, pamphlets, masons in congress, medal of honor recipients, source of many popular brochures and well-organized lists, including the following:

U.S. Grand Lodges www.msana.com/linksus.htm

International Grand Lodgeswww.msana.com/linksintl.htm

Links to other Masonic related sites – www.msana.com/linksother.htm

Freemason.org, www.freemasonry.org, a web portal to Masonic sites around the world and home of the Philalethes Society, the world’s oldest Masonic Research Society 

Masonic Info.com, www.masonicinfo.com , has a huge list of famous masons and info on anti-Masonry. Even includes falsely attributed and infamous masons.

Freemasonry.net, www.freemasonry.net/links.asp , huge list of Lodge web sites

Freemasonry Today, www.freemasonrytoday.com   leading magazine, with links around the world

Order of Eastern Star, www.easternstar.org  with links around the world

Scottish Rite, Northern U.S., www.supremecouncil.org, in the 1730’s many Scottish, Irish, and English Masons moved to the Bordeaux region of France to escape the civil strife in England. They became known as the “Ecossais” or Scottish Masons, and in 1801 the Supreme Council of 33° was established in Charleston.

York Rite, http://yorkrite.com   

World’s Oldest web portal: http://web.mit.edu/dryfoo/Masonry  — dubbed the “world’s oldest Masonic web site”

George Washington Masonic Memorial, www.gwmemorial.org

Library, Supreme Council 33rd Degree, www.srmason-sj.org/library.htm  

National Masonic Foundation for Children www.masonicmodel.org, presents and supports a student assistance program, the Masonic Model Student Assistance Training (MMSAT) program.

International Association Legions of Honor is a Shriners Association consisting of 156 Legion of Honor Units within the Shrine. Membership requirements are being a Mason, a member of the Shrine and also a Veteran of the Armed forces. For more information you can access the International Association Legions of Honor web page at http://ialoh.org.

London Museum of Freemasonry, www.freemasonry.london.museum,  The Library and Museum of Freemasonry is a registered museum housing one of the finest publicly available collections of Masonic material in the world.

National Heritage Museum: www.monh.org - click on exhibits — long-term exhibit entitled “To Build and Sustain: Freemasons in American Community,” an extraordinary collection, even George Washington’s role in laying the U.S. Capitol’s corner stone.

Washington’s First Inaugural Speech in New York, April 30, 1789: see the entire speech at www.ku.edu/carrie/docs/texts/01wash1.htm or at, www.pbs.org/georgewashington/milestones/inaugural_address_read.html  

Grand Lodges

Grand Lodge of England, www.grandLodge-england.org - first record of the ‘making’ of an English Freemason is Elias Ashmole, the antiquarian and herald, whose collections formed the basis of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford. He recorded in his diary that a Lodge met at his father-in-law’s house in Warrington, Cheshire, on 16 October 1646, to make him a Mason. None were stonemasons. Speculative Freemasonry established on 24 June 1717 when four London Lodges came together at the Goose and Gridiron Ale House, St Paul’s Churchyard, formed themselves into a Grand Lodge and elected Anthony Sayer as their Grand Master—first Grand Lodge in the world.

Grand Lodge of Ireland, www.irish-freemasons.org - is the second oldest in the world and the first evidence for its existence comes from the Dublin Weekly Journal of June 26th 1725.

Grand Lodge of Israel, www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/9991

Grand Lodge of Scotland, www.grandLodgescotland.com – Founded in 1736

Grand Lodge of Texas: www.grandlodgeoftexas.org - with one of the largest memberships in the world. Site has a large number of resources. Charles McKay has taken several of Masonic Education lessons by Mike Wiggins and the Grand Lodge Masonic Education Committee and converted them into audio lesions. See,

www.grandlodgeoftexas.org/2004-educational-programs.php

Below are a few good ones: mp3 files of higher quality and may not stream well in slower dial-up connections, but smaller wma files will play almost immediately.

The Five Points of Fellowship:

www.grandlodgeoftexas.org/audio/five_points_of_fellowship.mp3

www.grandlodgeoftexas.org/audio/five_points_of_fellowship.wma

The Equilateral Triangle

www.grandlodgeoftexas.org/audio/equilateral_triangle.mp3

www.grandlodgeoftexas.org/audio/equilateral_triangle.wma

The Great Light of Freemasonry

www.grandlodgeoftexas.org/audio/great_light.mp3

www.grandlodgeoftexas.org/audio/great_light.wma

The Square and Compasses

www.grandlodgeoftexas.org/audio/square_and_compasses.mp3

www.grandlodgeoftexas.org/audio/square_and_compasses.wma

Masonic Presidents of the United States

www.grandlodgeoftexas.org/audio/masonic_presidents.mp3

www.grandlodgeoftexas.org/audio/masonic_presidents.wma

Grand Lodge of New York, www.nymasons.org   

Grand Lodge of Washington D.C., www.dcgrandLodge.org  

Prince Hall Grand Lodges; Massachuetts, 1776 1st Lodge, 1791 Grand Lodge, www.princehall.org  — has good list of other 31 other Prince Hall Grand Lodges in U.S. & beyond; in Texas, 1875, www.mwphglotx.org  

Famous Freemasons

www.masonicinfo.com/famous1.htm  — A through L

www.masonicinfo.com/famous2.htm  — M through Z

 ^— This site also has lists of infamous Masons and falsely attributed Masons

www.phmainstreet.com/suncoast/famous.htm  

www.co-masonry.org/language/english/history/famous.asp  

 


 

Appendix 2. Character—the Sum of Virtues

 

Freemasonry is all about Character Counting, to God and to each other. Freemasonry is less about Religious Righteousness and more about helping, more about growth than judgment, more about truth than about finding fault, more about tolerance than difference, and more about agreement than finding points of disagreement. And so I add this piece, which was developed for my ethics book, Would You Lie to Save a Life?.[1]

Today, character can mean a lot of things, but for the most part it means the total collection of virtues or vices that make up a person.[2] We intuitively know the difference between the person with the bad or good character, between the good citizen and the criminal (even the sane and insane, mature and immature, moral and immoral). Likewise we know that birds of a feather flock together: people with like character tend to associate together. And with that, we know that unique personalities and even unique temperaments are found among those with similar character where such is a near synonym for reputation.

Character building is not new, but has a long history. As seen in the bibliography, there was a great interest before and after WWI, and character building has taken off in the last twenty years. Character building has been important to every culture we know anything about. In the U.S., the Josephson Institute of Ethics has led the way, and its Character Counts programs have been started in many schools across the country.[3]

In these mostly secular venues, often mirroring the religious, the meaning of character building always refers to the building of a good character, and without exception the building of a good character includes the development of several virtues.

These character building enterprises and initiatives strengthened and refined the definition of character. A person who has a strong character has mastered several virtues and good habits and noble social skills. We shall look at a few of these collections of virtues after we distinguish between character and temperament.

Outside the religious worlds, even preceding the secular work on character building, a large amount of work has been done in psychology on distinguishing temperaments. One the most popular and well-developed is Isabel Briggs Myers’s Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Every one should take the Myers-Briggs, if even just for fun. There are many, and these help us understand each other, respect differences, and help us to communicate with each other. The Myers-Briggs asks several hundred questions, and places the person in one of four quadrants, with each quadrant having four sub-groups. There is hardly a person who has taken that survey who has not been amazed at their own description after the survey results.[4]

Based upon the MBTI, David Keirsey has brought this to life in his Please Understand Me II: Temperament, Character, Intelligence.[5] He has taken the classical four dimensions of character, meshed them with the MBTI, and interpreted them into our contemporary settings.

char_1. Keirsey’s Four Major Personality Types

Rationals: engineers (architects like Albert Einstein and Marie Curie, and inventors like Walt Disney and Camille Paglia) and coordinators (masterminds like Dwight Eisenhower and Ayn Rand, and field marshals like Bill Gates and Margaret Thatcher)

Idealists: advocates (healers like Albert Schweitzer and Anne Lingbergh, and champions like Bill Moyers and Molly Brown) and mentors (counselors like Mohandas Gandhi and Eleanor Roosevelt, and teachers like Mikhael Gorbachev and Margaret Mead)

Artisans: entertainers (composers like Johnny Carson and Barbra Streisand, and performers like Elvis Presley and Elisabeth Taylor), and operators (crafters like Clint Eastwood and Amelia Earhart, and promoters like Franklin Roosevelt and Madonna)

Guardians: administrators (inspectors like Harry Truman and Elizabeth II, and supervisors like Colin Powell and Elizabeth I) and conservators (protectors like Jimmy Stewart and Mother Teresa, and providers like George Washington and Martha Stewart)

Along with the insightful contributions of the MBTI, Keirsey and others helped us accept the natural differences between temperament: you could say Keirsey has helped us understand the application of unconditional Love. Under a sensitive section in Please Understand Me called “Different Drummers” Keirsey dramatizes:

If I do not want what you want, please try not to tell me that my want is wrong.

Or if I believe other than you, at least pause before you correct my view.

Or if my emotion is less than yours, or more, given the same circumstances, try not to ask me to feel more strongly or weakly.

Or yet if I act, or fail to act, in the manner of your design for action, let me be.

I do not, for the moment at least, ask you to understand me. That will come only when you are willing to give up changing me into a copy of you.

I may be your spouse, your parent, your offspring, your friend, or your colleague. If you will allow me any of my own wants, or emotions, or beliefs, or actions, then you open yourself, so that some day these ways of mine might not seem so wrong, and might finally appear to you as right—for me. To put up with me is the first step to understanding me. Not that you embrace my ways as right for you, but that you are no longer irritated or disappointed with me for my seeming waywardness. And in understanding me you might come to prize my differences from you, and, far from seeking to change me, preserve and even nurture those differences.[6]

Hear the courageous plea for caring empathy resident in these statements. One does not need to agree with the ethics or actions of the person in order to respect their differences, and in Christian ethics there is certainly a difference between ethically neutral temperaments and unethical behavior. Truly, it is a no-brainer that we find all kinds of temperaments in all levels of morality and immorality. As true—certainly—Jesus found a way to relate and Love all in a way that the loved person felt loved, no matter their temperament or morals.

Personality is another way of looking at temperament (or vice versa). Douglas Jackson developed the Six-Factor Personality Questionnaire (SFPQ) that measures personality dimensions with each three-facet scales.

char_2. Jackson’s Six Dimensions of Personality

Agreeableness—Abasement, Even-Tempered, Good-Natured

Extraversion—Affiliation, Dominance, Exhibition

Independence—Autonomy, Individualism, Self-Reliance

Industriousness—Achievement, Seriousness, Endurance

Methodicalness—Cognitive Structure, Deliberateness, Order

Openness to Experience—Change, Understanding, Breadth of Interest[7]

 

The Taylor-Johnson Temperament Analysis (T-JTA) has been used widely in marriage counseling. It graphs the person’s temperament through a series of about 9 continuums, and between each of these 9 continuums is a normal range for most of the population. Many good Christian counselors, colleges, and seminaries use the T-JTA. Most persons spike outside of the normal range in a few of the temperament continuums. This survey is usually done by both spouses, then each spouse does one survey as they think and see their spouse: revelations abound between how one spouse views the other as opposed to how the spouse views his- or herself.[8]

The main difference between temperament and character revolves around ethics: temperament has little-to-nothing to do with ethics (unless one is out of control), and character is all about ethics. Temperament is about our individual and unique collection of social and mental and emotional traits running the gamut between carrying our feelings on our shoulder to the more cold-shouldered, from the introvert to the extrovert, from the painter to the rock-climber. Character is about growing in a collection of virtues—though unique—yet have common goals in love, truth, justice, sacrifice, and service.

The following indicate the many ways of categorizing the virtues, and we begin with some biblical lists.

char_3. Paul’s Spiritual Gifts

1 Corinthians 12 and Roman 12 Combined

1. Wisdom

7. Discerning of Spirits

13. Administration

2. Knowledge

8. Tongues

14. Leadership/Ruleth

3. Faith

9. Interpretation Tongues

15. Exhortation

4. Healing

10. Apostleship

16. Giving

5. Miracles

11. Teaching

17. Mercy

6. Prophecy

12. Helping

18. Love w/out Dissimulation[9]

Add 1 Corinthian 13—Faith, Hope, Love, and Love is the Greatest

char_4. St. Paul’s 20 Virtues

1. Love

8. Forgiveness

15. Hope

2. Compassion

9. Gratitutude

16. Goodness

3. Kindness

10. Wisdom

17. Faithfulness

4. Humility

11. Peace

18. Self-Control

5. Gentleness

12. Righteousness

19. Purity

6. Patience

13. Joy

20. Understanding[10]

7. Tolerance

14. Endurance

 

char_5. Jesus’ Beatitudes

Humility

Purity of Heart

Blessed – happy[11]

Meekness

Peacemaking

 

Mercy

Suffering Persecution

 

char_6. Aquinas’ 7 Heavenly Virtues

Four Cardinal Virtues following Plato

Wisdom (or prudence: docility, conscientiousness, impartiality, tact)

Courage (or fortitude: triumph in trials, glory in affliction, moral courage, righteous indignation, industry, thoroughness)

Temperance (or self-restraint: purity, humility, patience, meekness, thrift)

Justice (impartiality, devotion, obedience, gratitude to God)

Three Theological Virtues from St. Paul

Faith ~ Hope ~ Love[12]

char_7. Freemasonry’s 4 Cardinal Virtues, 3 Tenets, & 3 Values

Four Cardinal Virtues

Temperance ~ Fortitude ~ Prudence ~ Justice

Three Tenets

Brotherly Love ~ Relief ~ Truth

Three Values

Liberty ~ Equality ~ Fraternity[13]

char_8. Bennett’s Ten Virtues

1. Self-Discipline

6. Courage

2. Compassion

7. Perseverance

3. Responsibility

8. Honesty

4. Friendship

9. Loyalty

5. Work

10. Faith[14]

char_9. Bill Gothard’s 49 Virtues

1. Humility

2. Meekness

3. Joyfulness

4. Generosity

5. Love

6. Responsibility

7. Self-Control

8. Truthfulness

9. Deference

10. Creativity

11. Sincerity

12. Faith

13. Thriftiness

14. Initiative

15. Discernment

16. Discretion

17. Resourcefulness

18. Sensitivity

19. Decisiveness

20. Alertness

21. Compassion

22. Wisdom

23. Boldness

24. Attentiveness

25. Obedience

26. Honor/Reverence

27. Virtue

28. Determination

29. Tolerance

30. Justice

31. Contentment

32. Forgiveness

33. Loyalty

34. Availability

35. Persuasiveness

36. Patience

37. Hospitality

38. Gratefulness

39. Enthusiasm

40. Gentleness

41. Punctuality

42. Thoroughness

43. Security

44. Diligence

45. Endurance

46. Dependability

47. Cautiousness

48. Orderliness

49. Flexibility[15]

char_10. Bill Bright’s 8 Virtues of Love

1. Joy—Love’s Strength

5. Goodness—Love’s Character

2. Peace—Love’s Security

6. Faithfulness—Love’s Confidence

3. Patience—Love’s Endurance

7. Gentleness—Love’s Humility

4. Kindness—Love’s Conduct

8. Self-Control—Love’s Victory[16]

char_11. U.S. Navy Core Values

Honor ~ Courage ~ Commitment[17]

char_12. Farley’s 5-D Model of Heroism & Greatness

Determinants: traits: 1. Courage & Strength, face life-threatening or emotional strain; 2. Honesty, Honest Abe; 3. Kindness, Loving, Generous; 4. Skill, Expertise, Intelligence; 5. Risk-taking; 6. Objects of Affection, heroes win hearts & mind

Depth: timeless, mythical, almost otherworldly; even diminutive seem larger than life

Domain: where a hero makes his or her mark, and politics rank 1st for most heroes, (though usually need to die first), 2nd is entertainment, 3rd is family members, 4th religious figures, rest coming from military, science, sports, and the arts

Database: where we get our information: main sources are television, radio, magazines; conspicuous by its absence is history class

Distance: how close we are to our heroes; for most mom & dad are the heroes[18]

char_13. New Zealand’s 8 Cornerstone Values

1. Honest & Trustworthy

5. Obedience

2. Kindness

6. Responsibility

3. Consideration & Concern for others

7. Respect

4. Compassion

8. Duty[19]

char_14. Erikson’s 8 Stages of Life

1. Trust—birth to 1

5. Identity—puberty to 18

2. Autonomy—1 to 3

6. Intimacy—18 to 25

3. Initiative—3 to 6

7. Generativity—25 to 50

4. Competence—6 to puberty

8. Ego Integrity—50 to death[20]

char_15. Maslow’s 16 Points of Self-Actualization

1. Accurate perception of reality

2. Acceptance of oneself

3. Spontaneity

4. Problem centered

5. Need for privacy

6. Autonomous

7. Freshness of appreciation

8. Peak experiences

9. Human kinship

10. Humility & respect for others

11. Deep interpersonal relationships with a select few people

12. Strong but not necessarily conventional ethical standards

13. Focuses on ends rather than means

14. Nonhostile sense of humor

15. Creative

16. Resistance to enculturation[21]

char_16. Peterson & Seligman’s 6 Character Strengths & 24 Virtues

1. Wisdom & Knowledge—strengths to acquire and use knowledge

Creativity: Originality, Ingenuity

Curiosity: Interest, Novelty-seeking, Openness to Experience

Open-mindedness: Judgment, Critical Thinking: examining all sides, not jumping

Love of Learning: ability to master new skills

Perspective: Wisdom: ability to look at world in ways that make sense

2. Courage—strengths of will to meet goals in opposition, external or internal

Bravery: Valor: not shrinking from threat, challenge, difficulty, or pain; speaking up for what is right even in opposition; acting on convictions

Persistence: Perseverance, Industriousness: finish what one starts even in obstacles

Integrity: Authenticity, Honesty: speaking the truth—but more, with genuineness and ability to be sincere; responsible for one’s own feelings and actions

Vitality: Zest, Enthusiasm, Vigor, Energy: approaching life with excitement, not halfway; living life as an adventure; feeling alive

3. Humanity—interpersonal strengths involve tending & befriending others

Love: valuing close relations, especially those reciprocated; being close to people

Kindness: Generosity, Nurturance, Care, Compassion, Altruistic Love, Niceness

Social Intelligence: Emotional Intelligence, Personal Intelligence: aware of motives, feelings of others and self; knowing how to fit in and what makes others tick

4. Justice—civic strengths that underlie healthy community life

Citizenship: Social Responsibility, Loyalty, Teamwork

Fairness: treat all the same with justice, not letting feelings bias, fair chance

Leadership: encouraging group keeping good relations

5. Temperance—strengths that protect against excess

Forgiveness & Mercy

Humility & Modesty: not seeking spotlight, no more important than others

Prudence: careful with choices, not taking undue risks

Self-regulation: Self-control: disciplined, controlling appetites & emotions

6. Transcendence—strengths connect to larger world & provide meaning

Appreciation of Beauty & Excellence: Awe, Wonder, Elevation

Gratitude

Hope: Optimism, Future-mindedness, Future Orientation: expecting best & working

Humor: Playfulness: liking to laugh, bring smiles, seeing light side

Spirituality: Religiousness, Faith, Purpose: having coherent world beliefs; having beliefs on meaning of life that shape conduct and provide comfort[22]

char_17. Leo Buscaglia’s 10 Most Essential Words

1. Right Knowledge, to supply you with the tools necessary for your voyage.

2. Wisdom, to assure you that you are using the accumulated knowledge of the past in a manner that will best serve the discovery of your presence, your “now.”

3. Compassion, to help you accept others whose ways may be different from yours, with gentleness & understanding, as you move with, through, or around them on your own way.

4. Harmony, to be able to accept the natural flow of life.

5. Creativity, to help you realize new alternatives & unchartered paths along the way.

6. Strength, to stand up against fear and move forward in spite of uncertainty, without guarantee or payment.

7. Peace, to keep you centered.

8. Joy, to keep you songful, and laughing and dancing all along the way.

9. Love, to be your continual guide towards the highest level of consciousness.

10. Unity, which brings us back to where we started—the place where we are at one with ourselves and with all things.

“To live in Love is to live in life…. To me, life is God’s gift to you. How you live your life is your gift to God. Make it a fantastic one.”[23]

char_18. Plato’s and Aristotle’s List of Virtues

Plato’s List from the Republic (427-347 BC)

Wisdom

Self-Restraint or Temperance

Courage

Justice

Aristotle Added to Plato these in his Nicomachean Ethics (384-322 BC)

Generosity

Truthfulness

Wit

Magnificence

Friendliness

Greatness of soul[24]

char_19. Norman’s Big Five Tradition

Neuroticism—Worried, Nervous, Emotional

Extroversion—Sociable, Fun-Loving, Active

Openness—Imaginative, Creative, Artistic

Agreeableness—Good-natured, Softhearted, Sympathetic

Conscientiousness—Reliable, Hardworking, Punctual[25]

char_20. Mark Rutland’s 9 Traits Needed to Succeed

Courage—character in crisis

Honesty—character and truth

Loyalty—character in community

Meekness—character and power

Diligence—character in action

Reverence—character and the sacred

Modesty—character as simplicity

Gratitude—character in celebration[26]

Frugality—character and prosperity

 

char_21. Character Education Network’s 9 Character Virtues

Responsibility—being accountable in word and deed. Having a sense of duty to fulfill tasks with reliability, dependability and commitment.

Perseverance—pursuing worthy objectives with determination and patience while exhibiting fortitude when confronted with failure.

Caring—showing understanding of others by treating them with kindness, compassion, generosity and a forgiving spirit.

Self-discipline—demonstrating hard work controlling your emotions, words, actions, impulses and desires. Giving your best in all situations.

Citizenship—being law abiding and involved in service to school, community and country.

Honesty—telling the truth, admitting wrongdoing. Being trustworthy & acting with integrity.

Courage—doing the right thing in face of difficulty, following conscience instead of crowd.

Fairness—practicing justice, equity and equality. Cooperating with one another. Recognizing the uniqueness and value of each individual within our diverse society.

Respect—show high regard for authority, other people, self & country. Treating others as you would want to be treated. Understanding that all people have value as human beings.[27]

char_22. Character Counts’ 6 Pillars for Ethical Decisions

Trustworthiness: Be honest • Be reliable — do what you say you’ll do • Have the courage to do the right thing • Be loyal — stand by your family, friends and country

Respect: Treat others with respect; follow the Golden Rule • Be tolerant of differences • Use good manners, not bad language • Be considerate of the feelings of others • Don’t threaten, hit or hurt anyone • Deal peacefully with anger, insults and disagreements

Responsibility: Do what you are supposed to do • Persevere: keep on trying! • Always do your best • Use self-control • Be self-disciplined • Think before you act — consider the consequences • Be accountable for your choices

Fairness: Play by the rules • Take turns and share • Be open-minded; listen to others

Caring: Be kind, compassionate, show you care, gratitude • Forgive others • Help needy

Citizenship: Cooperate, Get in community affairs • Stay informed; vote • Be a good neighbor • Obey laws and rules • Respect authority • Protect the environment[28]

char_23. Ben Franklin’s 13 Virtues

1. Temperance: Eat not to dullness; drink not to elevation.

2. Silence: Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself; avoid trifling conversation.

3. Order: Let all your things have their places; let each part of your business have its time.

4. Resolution: Resolve to perform what you ought; perform without fail what you resolve.

5. Frugality: Make no expense but to do good to others or yourself; i.e., waste nothing.

6. Industry: Lose no time; be employed in something useful; cut off unnecessary actions.

7. Sincerity: Use no hurtful deceit; think innocently and justly.

8. Justice: Wrong none by doing injuries, or omitting the benefits that are your duty.

9. Moderation: Avoid extremes; forbear resenting injuries so much as you think they deserve.

10. Cleanliness: Tolerate no uncleanliness in body, cloths, or habitation.

11. Tranquility: Be not disturbed at trifles, or at accidents common or unavoidable.

12. Chastity: Rarely use venery but for health or offspring, never to dullness, weakness, or the injury of your own or another’s peace or reputation.

13. Humility: Imitate Jesus and Socrates.[29]

char_24. Boy Scouts of America 12 Character Traits

Trustworthy: tells the truth, keeps promises, honesty; can depend on him.

Loyal: true to his family, Scout leaders, friends, school, and nation.

Helpful: is concerned about people & does things willingly for others without pay or reward.

Friendly: is a friend to all and a brother to other Scouts, seeks to understand others, and respects those with ideas and customs other than his own.

Courteous: is polite to everyone regardless of age or position and knows good manners.

Kind: understands there is strength in being gentle, treats others as he wants to be treated, and does not hurt or kill harmless things without reason.

Obedient: follows the rules of his family, school, and troop, obeys the laws of his community and country; if he thinks these rules are unfair, he tries to have them changed in an orderly manner rather than disobey them.

Cheerful: looks for the bright side of things and cheerfully does tasks that come his way; he tries to make others happy.

Thrifty: works to pay his way and to help others, saves for unforeseen needs, protects and conserves natural resources, and carefully uses time and property.

Brave: can face danger even if he is afraid, has the courage to stand for what he thinks is right even if others laugh at or threaten him.

Clean: keeps his body and mind fit and clean, goes around with those who believe in living by these same ideals, and helps keep his home and community clean.

Reverent: is reverent to God, faithful in religious duties, & respects beliefs of others.[30]

char_25. Character Building.com 12 Virtues

Contentment

Respect

Dependability

Attentiveness

Kindness

Self-Control

Truthfulness

Patience

Perseverance

Thankfulness

Obedience

Goodness[31]

char_26. Stephen Covey’s 7 Habits of Highly Effective People

1. Be Proactive is the endowment of self-knowledge or self-awareness an ability to choose your response (response-ability).

2. Begin With the End In Mind is the endowment of imagination and conscience.

3. Put First Things First is the endowment of willpower.

4. Think Win-Win is the endowment of an abundance mentality.

5. Seek First to Understand, Then to Be Understood is the endowment of courage balanced with consideration.

6. Synergize is the endowment of creativity

7. Sharpen the Saw the endowment of continuous improvement to overcome entropy.[32]

There are no limits to the ways one looks as virtues and personality and the general ability to communicate. As the following indicates, sometimes we must stress our English language to look at the purpose itself of the communication or the personal abilities in order draw up some meaningful characteristics for those special abilities. Two more areas of huge significance to our personal lives come into play (to toss a pun) in the areas of match-making and general leadership. All of the above will be great, but when I am searching for a spouse—oh my!—there are characteristics that defy all of the above and that are extremely important and uniquely important. See e-harmony’s info below.

char_27. E-Harmony Match-Making’s 29 Dimensions

Character & Constitution

Good Character

Dominance vs. Submissiveness

Curiosity

Industry

Vitality & Security

Intellect

Appearance

Sexual Passion

Artistic Passion

Adaptability

 

 

Personality

Obstreperousness

Sense of Humor

Sociability

Energy

Ambition

 

Emotional Makeup & Skills

Emotional Health

Quality of Self Conception

Anger Management

Mood Management

Communication

Conflict Resolution

Kindness

Autonomy vs. Closeness

 

Family Values

Family Background

Feelings about Children

Education

Spirituality

Traditionalism

Values Orientation[33]

Neil Clark Warren developed and wrote a very popular work, Finding the Love of Your Life, and since then it has blossomed into a full-fledged match-making service broadcasted nationally as www.eharmony.com.[34] The above are only a portion of one section of the survey’s inventory to help with match-making; clearly, there are elements of “character” here we would desire or want to know about in a mate but that as clearly do not fit into any of the traditional categories. One starts the survey by answering over 500 questions designed to profile the 29 dimensions that scientific research has shown are crucial to long-term success in relationships. The resulting profile and matching claims to eliminate 99.7% of the people who are not right for you. At the start, you grade yourself on each of 87 different points of self-acceptance.[35] E-harmony’s extensive personality inventory is certainly a key to its and Warren’s success, and this is probably the most successful match-making service to date.

char_28. Kounzes & Posner’s 10 Leader Commitments

5 Leadership Practices in 10 Leader Commitments

Challenging the Process

1. Search for Opportunities: Confronting & Changing the Status Quo

2. Experiment and Take Risks: Learning from Mistakes & Success

Inspiring a Shared Vision

3. Envision the Future: Imagining Ideal Scenarios

4. Enlist Others: Attracting People to Common Purposes

Enabling Others to Act

5. Foster Collaboration: Getting People to Work Together

6. Strengthen Others: Sharing Power & Information

Modeling the Way

7. Set the Example: Leading by Doing

8. Plan Small Wins: Building Commitment to Action

Encouraging the Heart

9. Recognize Individual Contribution: Linking Rewards with Performance

10. Celebrate Accomplishments: Valuing the Victories[36]

Kounzes and Posner’s contribution here seem to be as significant to leadership study as Peterson and Seligman’s character study ought to become. I had taken the Covey leadership program and read several of his pithy books. Then when in another leadership colloquium I was tossed The Leadership Challenge, we have to had it to these men for articulating and illustrating these wonderful characteristics.

char_29. Kounzes & Posner’s Top Virtues Chosen

 

a–b

 

a–b

 

a–b

Honest

8783

Intelligent

38–43

Mature

14–23

Forward-looking

7162

Straightforward

34–34

Determined

13–20

Inspiring

6858

Courageous

33–27

Ambitious

10–21

Competent

5867

Dependable

32–32

Loyal

10–11

Fair-minded

49–40

Cooperative

30–25

Self-Controlled

5–13

Supportive

46–32

Imaginative

28–34

Independent

5–10

Broad-minded

41–37

Caring

27–26

 

 

Credibility—the single most important[37]

 

One can scarcely imagine the stress on a subordinate in having to rank such a list above: imagine your own admired leaders and then rank the virtues. For those we like and admire, it is very difficult to choose honest over mature, or supportive over loyal. Between the 1993 and 1987 respondents (a and b), over 15,000 agreed by a large margin on the top four. See how those four dovetail so well with the 24 lists above.

A good character is a universal ethical value, and truly “leadership is a relationship.”[38] In many ways, our character is what other people see and feel of our heart and soul. From www.GoRu.com—for Golden Rule—we read:

Good character is more to be praised than outstanding talent. Most talents are, to some extent, a gift. Good character, by contrast is not given to us. We have to build it piece by piece—by thought, choice, courage and determination.

Watch your thoughts; they become words. Watch your words; they become actions. Watch your actions; they become habits. Watch your habits; they become character. Watch your character; it becomes your destiny.

Oh, so true, “Do unto others as you would have them do to you”—as wise a saying as has every been given, a truly Golden Rule. The person truly living that has then mastered many of the virtues in the lists above.

There are many character-building initiatives and no end in sight.[39] Anne Dotson and Karen Wisont have developed a teaching curriculum to help school teachers teach character, utilizing 36 character traits.[40] Tony Salerno has written an extraordinary little children’s book that all of us could learn from: The ABC's of Character is a treasury of 26 character traits from Attentiveness to Zeal, from Boldness to Yielding, from Contentment to eXemplary.[41]

Before we leave the description of character, let us look at perhaps the most substantive nuts and bolts of character education. Tom Lickona, Eric Schaps, and Catherine Lewis’s Character Education Partnership’s (CEP) Eleven Principles of Effective Character Education have been instituted as standards and guidelines in many institutions. See char_30 below.

char_30. CEP’s 11 Principles of Effective Character Education

1. Promotes core ethical values as the basis of good character.

2. Defines “character” to include thinking, feeling, and behavior.

3. Uses a comprehensive, intentional, proactive, and effective approach.

4. Creates a caring school community.

5. Provides students with opportunities for moral action.

6. Meaningful and challenging academic curriculum that respects all learners.

7. Strives to foster students’ self motivation.

8. Engages the school staff as a learning and moral community that shares responsibility for character education and attempts to adhere to the same core values.

9. Fosters shared moral leadership and long-range support.

10. Engages families and community members as partners.

11. Evaluates the character of the school, the staff’s functioning, and the extent to which students manifest good character.[42]

Character education continues across the country. An extraordinary web site at CollegeValues.com lists 80+ colleges with character programs.[43] The Catholic Encyclopedia has an excellent history of character.[44] On October 20, 2002, President George W. Bush declared October 19 through October 25. See the following link for the top 200 web sites on:

http://www.preciousheart.net/Main_Archives/Links_Folder/SUPER_List_Character.htm

Character has been important in every culture of significance in human history.

 


 

Appendix 3.
George Bush’s Presidential Proclamation

National Character Counts Week, 2002 

By the President of the United States of America, A Proclamation 

 

President Theodore Roosevelt once said that, “Character, in the long run, is the decisive factor in the life of an individual and of nations alike.” During National Character Counts Week, Americans reaffirm our dedication to promoting good character and upholding the timeless virtues that make our Nation strong.

Our Founding Fathers understood that our country would survive and flourish if our Nation was committed to good character and an unyielding dedication to liberty and justice for all. Throughout our history, our most honorable heroes practiced the values of hard work and honesty, commitment to excellence and courage, and self-discipline and perseverance. Today, as we work to preserve peace and freedom throughout the world, we are guided by a national character that respects human dignity and values every life.

The future success of our Nation depends on our children’s ability to understand the difference between right and wrong and to have the strength of character to make the right choices. To help them reach their full potential and live with integrity and pride, we must teach our children to be kind, responsible, honest, and self-disciplined. These important values are first learned in the family, but all of our citizens have an obligation to support parents in the character education of our children.

Our schools play a crucial role in teaching the skills, knowledge, and moral values that will help our children succeed. As Martin Luther King, Jr., stated, “. . . intelligence is not enough. Intelligence plus character — that is the goal of true education.” By guiding children to understand universal values such as respect, tolerance, compassion, and commitment to family and community, our schools are working to achieve this goal.

My Administration is committed to promoting character by encouraging public service and civic awareness. The USA Freedom Corps is helping citizens discover volunteer opportunities in their communities and spreading the message that everyone can do something to care for their neighbors in need. This past June, we convened the White House Conference on Character and Community, which showcased programs from around the country that are proving that sound values can be effectively taught.

By affirming the importance of good character in our society and encouraging all people to lead lives of virtuous purpose, we can prepare our Nation, and especially our Nation's children, for the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Strengthening our national character will help secure greater opportunity, prosperity, and hope for all.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, GEORGE W. BUSH, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim October 20 through October 26, 2002, as National Character Counts Week. I call upon all public officials, educators, librarians, and all the people of the United States to observe this week with appropriate ceremonies, activities, and programs.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this eighteenth day of October, in the year of our Lord two thousand two, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and twenty-seventh.

GEORGE W. BUSH — # # #

www.WhiteHouse.gov/news/releases/2002/10/20021018-9.html

 


 

Appendix 4
James L. Holly’s Anti-Mason Efforts

The best index to a person’s character is
(a) how he treats people who can’t do him any good, and
(b) how he treats people who can't fight back.

Abigail Van Buren, Columnist “Dear Abby”
Born Pauline Esther Friedman

Here is clipped introduction of an extensive critique to James L. Holly’s The Southern Baptist Convention and Freemasonry.[45] I sent him a copy, and he said his volume III was the most substantial. I had a chance to engage him in some e-mails, and he admitted to authoring all three volumes. I did not have space to include it here, but I placed it on-line at:

www.preciousheart.net/freemasonry/Holly.htm  

I was far more generous with him and had hoped to add something here with respect to our progress. But he backed out … very much like a coward.

I sent him an advance copy and gave him time to responde, and he did; you can see Holly’s reply, his whole letter here:

www.preciousheart.net/freemasonry/Holly_Response.htm

He assailed the whole book as a diatribe and self-serving, practically admitting he did not read it or understand how character counts. Like his previous work, Holly simply complained and failed to address the issues, leaving no doubt as to his subjective feelings and inability to address the issues straightforward.

Here is the rest of the story. In our first encounter, we shared a few dozen e-mails prior to our engagement on Freemasonry, several of which were Christian and cordial and fun. I had read all of his books, about a dozen of his medical articles, and had sent him a copy of my large book, Heart of the Living God.[46] We had several good chats before we began on Freemasonry. Holly knew how to carry on a great conversation and appeared very intelligent and well-read. Once I sent him my review of his material in prospect for this book, Holly said he did not agree with how I presented it. We had a couple of nice exchanges with respect to the cat being out of the bag. I responded that I had hid nothing, noting from the beginning that I was a Baptist researching Freemasonry, and I also said that I had not intended to be a “cat” or “in a bag.”

I would like to say we had a conversation on Freemasonry—Holly did give me that illusion at the start. But Holly could not carry on a dialogue on Freemasonry and became more hostile with each e-mail. I was mild-mannered, but also questioned his Satanic accusations. In other e-mails and articles, Holly mentioned his utmost respect for his father who was also an active Freemason. I seemed to be in the place of defending the integrity of his own father—Holly never countenanced. Holly did thankfully admit that Freemasonry was not a religion, as if pulling his own teeth.

We continued to e-mail for a short time, and I endured his increasing hostility and ridicule. Each time Holly would e-mail me a snide remark about Freemasonry—like the apron being the Freemason’s salvation and a mean ridicule therein. I would respond substantially and kindly. Holly would not respond to any of my comments. He would just merely send another e-mail on a different topic, with another snide remark, without a droplet of reflection or conversation on my previous corrective. After about three e-mails and my substantial responses, it became clearer that he was not hearing or building on my substantial responses, and he never answered any response. Like a person with ADDH and burr under his arm, he would just jump to another topic which he spitefully attacked. That is not how the medical profession progresses and hopefully not how he keeps up with his medical practice.

Our conversations on Freemasonry where nothing like our sharing on Christianity.

Were we making progress in Freemasonry dialogue? I asked this a couple of times to check the reality of our conversation. Was he assimilating my previous comments or just ignoring them? Could we make progress? When he commented on the evil of secrecy, I sent him a rough copy of chapter 10 on secrecy as an attachment to my e-mail. My e-mail was substantial, and I asked for some answers to some of my previous comments.

I sent a mild challenge to focus the field. Holly sent his most hostile e-mail of all questioning my faith. I responded not in kind, but allowed that to be the platform to take it to a new level again, realizing he was getting too frustrated to continue. I challenged directly his “fiendish devils[47] remark with respect and contrasting that with his own Freemason father, forcing the issue of character counting. I asked about the darkness he talked about and why he could not spell that out.

With the more direct challenge and wondering about the lagging time, James L. Holly sent me his final one, stating there would be no more on March 16, 2005, 6:35 PM.

As I thought about you this morning, I realized that II Corinthians 6:15 is true; it  states in the part that which applies to us, “And what concord hath Christ with Belial?”…

The energy and devotion with which you are severing [sic] an alien faith places you outside of that harmony in Christ.[48]

He had thrown in the towel. And after those introductory words, he sucker punched, for he threw to me one more cruel remark against Freemasonry and then closed with his statement that there would be no more.

I responded that evening with an e-mail that thanked him—again—for responding and catered to his kindness and intelligence and dedication, even reflecting on the humor of it all so far, hoping it would not actually be our last. One time, his father’s dog was shot, and his father took the dead and dropped it on the desk of the man who shot it. That was a real direct way of closing the issue and completing the communication process. Could we do the same and just finish the dialogue on one topic? Surely, fiendish devils did not apply to his father or most of the Freemasons he knew—I knew that, and Holly should be able to admit. At least that would have been progress, however minimal.

After I had cushioned enough, I then went to close the e-mail with a couple of straightforward observations. I had hoped he would at least address one of my substantial rejoinders, and I challenged—now documented in our e-mails—his desire to avoid civil conversation or even fun interaction one topic at a time. He had, I challenged, demonstrated his inability to deal with one topic at a time thus far. I drove that home—one topic at a time, like in his medical profession, where a point is exhausted. I said,

Each of the previous slights I previously addressed. You say NOTHING. I have some simple dialogue to your rascal comments below.  But your precedent thus far is NOT to address reason or WHATEVER I say, but rather to initiate a new tomato of your own creation and slice and dice—increasing your hostility all along way—until I get tired or you have no more TIME. Will you be calling me a “fiendish devil” too, BECAUSE your slicing and dicing and inability to exhaust one topic at a time is NOW truly—sincerely and solemnly—a “cat in the bag” caught and tied up?[49]

With that, I re-enforced the rhetoric—now he is the one who does not have the time! I drove that home and closed. The bag was in his court.

Two days later, I sent the following with a repeat of the above e-mail—just to pursue the closure.

James,

As I thought about YOU this morning, I did not need you to tell that II Corinthians 6:15 is true—You exemplify it in your hostility and inability to carry on a civil dialogue.

With insult after insult—I’ve seen better in Christian prisoners.

Mike[50]

I do not know if he erased me from his address book or not; if so, then he would not have received my last responses. Either way, this does wonderfully illustrate the honor between us, or rather lack of it, and Holly does become typical of the malignant anti-Mason. Below is an edited version of the online and very generous document mentioned above that I sent to Holly for his perusal. To date, Holly has not responded to one significant element. Holly just knows and cannot articulate what he knows in direct response to a corrective.

That is no characteristic of the medical profession or how research progresses.

James L. Holly, M.D., is a physician and founding partner and CEO of the Southeast Texas Medical Association (SETMA.com, Beaumont, TX). He has written on several Christian themes, especially on the connection between hope and health. I obtained copies of his books and indicated that I was researching Freemasonry. His chief work was in three volumes, The Southern Baptist Convention and Freemasonry (SBC-FM-I, II, III, 1992-1994). Especially through the first volume and much correspondence, Holly goaded the SBC to start a Freemasonry study, and he outlined some of the chief players and many of his own criticisms of the process in this series. Holly’s own books document that he wanted the equivalent of excommunication and official condemnation of Freemasonry—like the SBC was in charge of churches instead of the churches being the leaders of the SBC. Holly was angry.

Holly’s combined volume I and II bordered on criminal mischief, and his volume III not much better, only volume III included a lot of work from others. Holly said his volume III was the most substantial. Here follows the outline of 60-page on-line critique.

       I.   Mystery Religions and the Sanctity of Secrecy

      II.   Bible on Mystery Religions and Holly’s Misrepresentation

     III.   Masonic Authorities & the Most Theological Section in Freemasonry

    IV.   Who Knows the Truth about Freemasonry & Holly’s “Lies”

      V.   Occultism of Freemasonry & the Pike’s Meaning of Mislead

    VI.   Lucifer—Where Did He Come From? … and the Kabbalah?

   VII.   Knights Kadosh—30th Degree—Lucifer Again?

  VIII.   How Can Christians Be So Duped?—The Question of Character

    IX.   What Are Christians To Do?

                  Volume II of III of Holly’s Freemasonry Series

The following is the last section of the critique, just like I sent Holly.

 

Last Portion of Critique on Volume III of Holly’s Work & Lucifer

This volume is less of a contribution and more of a lament. Holly uses a metaphor of an appellate court to start, but I cannot image any appellate court tolerating the low quality of humming spread throughout this volume.

Holly struggles with the SBC Home Mission Board and becomes sorely frustrated at them. That consumes the first hundred pages of volume three, and most of that is about Gary Leazer and how Holly slices Leazer. Holly very clearly and in numerous fashions tries to prove Leazer’s bias as though Holly himself was not. The worst thing about these invectives is how Holly pretends that Leazer could have and should have accomplished a condemnation of Freemasonry without contacting any Freemason authorities.

Given the degree of pursuit that Holly documents, and what Holly reveals about his own pursuit, we could document in about ten pages how Holly proved that he would not have settled for anything but total condemnation of Freemasonry. Holly laments several times that his “630 Page Presentation” should have been critiqued.[51] Holly makes a large point there, only his volumes I and II did not have enough; Holly even indicates that his volume I did not mean as much after the SBC study commenced (we are not told what Holly means by that in volume III).

Gary Leazer was not a Freemason when he led the first stages of the SBC study, and Leazer chose to respect many SBC Freemasons and many mighty Freemason SBC leaders in the past. Leazer was targeted for walking slowly and respecting the character of so many. If Leazer made mistakes here and there and did not do precisely what Holly imagined that Leazer should do—that is not a great problem. What is a great problem is how Holly refuses to give a plugged nickel for the Christian character of millions. That’s a hell of a problem, especially when you compare the quality of Holly’s work with Leazer’s.

Holly also attacks another non-Mason researcher: John Robinson, who became a Freemason after much research. There are dozens of errors and stretched misrepresentations in volume III equal to our criticisms above. But I shall only deal with a perfect example that truly needs corrected. Holly quotes from John Robinson’s A Pilgrim’s Path: One Man’s Road to the Masonic Temple a passage about the etymology of lucifer. Here is Holly at the worst, when he concludes, “Did Dr. Lewis or the Trustees know that Robinson identified Jesus as Lucifer? Why didn’t they?”[52] First off, even though I attack the SBC report and Gordon with vociferous abandon above, Holly himself did not read what Robinson wrote. Holly did not read what he accuses the SBC HMB trustees of not reading. Let’s look a little closer at this.

Holly attacked Gary Leazer for 170 pages, including how Leazer had used Johnson as a respected non-Mason Freemasonry scholar (just the kind that Holly wants). Then Holly asked why Larry Lewis and the Trustees did not know something about Johnson; that is strange, but obvious. The answer to Holly’s dastardly question is this: because Gary Leazer was the researcher.

But that is not the worse thing at all about Holly’s directions and questions here about Leazer’s use of John Robinson. The worst thing of all is that Holly says that Robinson identified Jesus as Lucifer. As Holly quoted, Robinson did say “Lucifer is the classical Roman name for the morning star, and now Jesus is the morning star.”[53] Look at that quote, and then look at Holly’s interpretation. Look at Holly’s whopping two pages on Robinson. That is terrible work by Holly that says that Robinson believes that Satan as Lucifer is Jesus. That is terrible.

If James L. Holly had read Robinson, then Holly would have seen that Robinson had decided to follow the interpretation of Hebrew theologians on Isaiah who said the reference to Lucifer was to the king of Babylon and not Satan.[54] In that context, whether or not one agrees with Robinson’s interpretation, Robinson does not force it. What is clear is that Robinson does not equate Satan-Lucifer with Jesus. Holly terribly misrepresents Robinson.[55] For God’s sake, take a look yourself. In the limited passage that Holly interprets out of context, one can see Robinson’s meaning—but only vaguely. But inside of Robinson’s context, it is so very clear that when Robinson looks at Jesus, Robinson says precisely what he means, that now Jesus is the morning star. Excuse me!—but that is precisely what Jesus himself said, that “I am the Root and the Offspring of David, and the bright Morning Star.”[56]

I suppose I could stretch Holly’s meaning to say that Holly does not believe that Jesus is the Morning Star, and from that impute that Holly does not believe the Bible. That is how Holly approached too many items throughout volumes I-III. But that is not what Holly believes in spite of how he treated the word Lucifer.

It is terrible bedside manners for Holly to return such an indictment upon the Lewis and the Home Mission Board trustees with so little thought. And Holly clearly slanders Robinson. With respect to nearly every single quote among several hundreds in volumes I-III, a page could be written about a ratcheted twist or stretch or blatant misrepresentation. How Holly drew such a terribly errant conclusion from Robinson is indicative of all of volumes I-III. That indicates the vast scope of the problems—innumerable.

 

See the entire 60-page critique here:
www.preciousheart.net/freemasonry/Holly.htm  

and his response
www.preciousheart.net/freemasonry/Holly_Response.htm

 


 

Appendix 5
Founding Fathers in More Light: Barton, LeHaye, & History

Introduction to Founding Father Analysis

Chart 8. Barton’s Founding Fathers in More Light (revisited)

A. Founding Era – 1760-1805 – Founders – Men 16 Years Old+ in 1776

B. Founding Era – 1760-1805 – Men Born 1761+ & Before 1774: 16 Years Old+ by 1789

C. Founding Era – 1760-1805 – Born 1775, Not Founders But Children at Founding, Younger than 16 Years Old by 1789

D. Founding Era – 1760-1805 – 16 Years Old & Older in 1776 – But NOT Founders, NOT New American Residents

E. Outside Founding Era – Born Before 1760

F. Outside Founding Era – Born After 1773, Children, Less Than 16 Years in 1789

G. Clergymen = 48 in Barton

H. Tim LaHaye’s 54 Founding Fathers

I. 33 Freemason Generals in Continental Army

I. 85 More Freemason Founding Fathers Not in Barton or LeHaye

Introduction to Founding Father Analysis

The following is an analysis of David Barton’s 268 biographic sketches of selected individuals referenced in his Original Intent. We also focus upon chronological order and chronological issues for more light. With respect to David Barton’s entire thesis, his elimination of Freemasonry is a critical failure. Furthermore, the church membership at least, to say nothing of church attendance (and Barton says nothing of church attendance), for Barton to have substantiated his thesis he should have been more attentive to a simple majority of church-going persons and a good number of ministers who were also Founding Fathers. Yet, we find that 27 ministers of 48 are not Founding Fathers at all.[57]

Our primary reference for Freemasonry affiliation came from a comparison with William R. Denslow’s magnum opus 10,000 Famous Freemasons.[58] A few times, Denslow noted doubts about a man’s membership, and Denslow cross-referenced many times.

To read the chart and following gradations, note that Barton listed the years 1740-1850 as the “lifespan of the Founders” and the years 1760-1805 as the “Founding Era.”[59] The terms theologian and minister have been changed to Clergyman for consistency, with theologian left to retain it’s unique significance. OI = David Barton’s Original Intent.[60]

Here is an astounding revelation after a closer look at David Barton’s extensive research.

 

Founding Era 1760-1805 & 268 Important Bio’s

Only 188 of 268 are Founding Fathers—85 of 268 attorneys

164 of 268 Founding 1776 Fathers[61]—69 of 164 are attorneys

24 of 268 Founding 1789 Fathers[62]—16 of 24 are attorneys

10 of 268 Founding Children, <16 by 1789[63]

76 Freemasons in Barton’s Founders

76 of 188 Founders Freemasons, 40%

69 of 164 1776 Founders Freemasons, 42%

8 of 24 1789 Founders Freemasons, 33%

48 Clergymen in Barton’s 268

26 Founding Fathers Clergy

27 >16 Years @ 1776—1 of 27 Not Founding Father[64]

21 Not Founding Fathers – 1 lived in 10th Century

5 of 21 born before Columbus sailed – 10 died before 1700

15 died before 1776 – 5 of 21 <16 @ 1789, 2 of 21 born after 1800

Outside Founding Era 1760-1805

80 of 268, 30% Not Founders

37 of 268 Not Founders, Not Born 1760[65]

38 of 268 Not Founders, Born After 1773[66]

5 of 268 Not Founders, Not Resident[67]

Chart 8.  Barton’s Founding Fathers in More Light (revisited)

Those are numbers that have a bearing upon David Barton’s and much of the Religious Right’s concern over original intent of our beloved U.S. Constitution. Moreover, we inserted Tim LeHaye’s list of 54 as well as 33 Freemason Founding Generals and 85 other Freemason Founding Fathers with short bio’s, and we could have listed hundreds.[68] We all know that there were more, but not many more truly significant leaders. The numbers above cannot be seen as closed or truly representative, just representative of the leaders: the leaders is a finite number. Surely, there are many more hundreds who were Founding Fathers of some sort, and many who were and were not Freemasons. The point is with respect and disrespect to David Barton’s own shuffling. Look, and look close at Barton and his own rationale. The 268 is his own deduction, and from that we see 76 or 40% who were Freemasons. In Barton’s many books—all of them together—we do not even know if 2% of any of the Founding Fathers were Baptist or anything else. We do not know of any significant church attendance at all. What do we know? We know that Freemasonry more than any other single institution played a role. All of that—by Barton’s own rationale—overshadows, even occults his own ideas of an evangelical original intent. Superlatives fail us here—except perhaps malignance in Barton’s hiding of that.

In Tim LaHaye, the top two—George Washington and Benjamin Franklin—were the most influential Founding Fathers and among the most active Freemasons; after these two, the next five “most-influencing Founding Fathers”[69] were

 

Mason 1751-1836, James Madison[70]

1752-1816, Gouverneur Morris

Mason 1721-1793, Roger Sherman

Mason 1757-1804, Alexander Hamilton[71]

1763-1816, George Mason

 

Five out of LeHaye’s top seven were Freemasons, or 71%—remarkable. Then LeHaye gives three more lists: two lists of 16 and one of 15—for 47—that gives us 54 significant Founding Fathers in LaHaye (47 + 5 + 2 = 54). Of the 54, 14 or 26% are unique to LaHaye (u=unique), and 19 of the 54 were Freemasons, for 35%; that means of the 54 Founding Fathers in LeHaye, 24 or 44% were Freemasons. See the list below.

 

A. Founding Era – 1760-1805 – Men 16 Years Old+ in 1776

164 with 69[72] Freemasons, or 42% — Please note that I added bio info from Denslow to complement Barton’s info (editing some of Barton’s too), but got tired somewhere about halfway through and stopped adding lodge numbers, etc.; there is so much more.

Mason 1706-1790, Benjamin Franklin, one of the leading Founding Fathers by everyone’s acclamation, author, scientist, first president of the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting Abolition of Slavery, one of only six who signed both Declaration and Constitution; in 1727, he organized the Leather Apron Club as a secret society in Philadelphia (non-Masonic), received his degrees in 1731 in St. John’s Lodge in Philadelphia, and served every post, and was then appointed provincial grand master by Thomas Oxnard of Boston on June 10, 1749, deposed in 1750 and appointed deputy grand master, was appointed to a committee for building a Free-Mason’s Lodge in Philadelphia and took a prominent part in the dedication of the first Masonic building in American on June 24, 1755; he printed Anderson’s Constitutions which was the first Masonic book printed in America in 1734; he visited France, assisted in the initiation of Voltaire in 1778 into the Lodge of the Nine Sisters in Paris, and on 11-28-1778 officiated at the Masonic funeral held by that Lodge for Voltaire. On 7-7-1782 he was a member of the Respectable Lodge de Saint Jean de Jerusalem and in 1785 he was elected honorary member of the Loge des Bon Amis of Rouen, France.

1707-1785, Stephen Hopkins, congressman, founder of library in Providence, signer of Declaration

1710-1785, Rev. Jonathan Trumbull, Clergyman, businessman, judge, congressman, minister church in Colshester, CT, Governor Connecticut 1769-1784, only Colonial Governor who served from start to finish of American Revolution, “probably contributed more to the Revolution in the way of arms, munitions, supplies, men, etc., than any other Governor; was a close counsel of General Washington throughout the War” (OI, 427)

1711-1779, Eleazer Wheelock, Clergyman, popular preacher in Great Awakening, educated Indians, est. Dartmouth 1770 and remained president until death

1711-1779, John Hart, congressman, signer of Declaration

1715-1757, Rev. Aaron Burr, Clergyman, Presbyterian and college president, called to First Church of Newark, involved in revivals of Great Awakening 1746

1715-1766, Rev. Samuel Farley, Clergyman, taught Benjamin Rush, president of Princeton 1761-1766

Mason 1716-1778, Phillip Livingston, merchant, congressman, signed Declaration, president of the New York Provincial Convention

1720-1766, Rev. Jonathan Mayhew, Clergyman, pastor of West Church, Boston 1747, preached Christianity on Scriptures and not Calvinism, defender of civil liberty, including on sermon after repeal of Stamp Act titled The Snare Broken 1766, well thought of by patriots including John Adams

Mason 1721-1793, Roger Sherman, farmer, cobbler, JP, congressman, helped with introduction of two houses of congress, signed Declaration and Constitution (1 of 6), only founder to sign Declaration, Articles of Association, Articles of Confederation, and Constitution – ONLY signed all 4

Mason 1722-1803, Samuel Adams, known “Firebrand of Revolution” and “Father of the American Revolution” (OI, 374), signer on Declaration; Mason no record, purported to be made one at St. John’s Lodge, Boston, MA

1723-1761, Rev. Samuel Davies, Clergyman, influential in Great Awakening, Presbyterian, President of Princeton after friend, Jonathan Edwards

1723-1790, William Livingston, attorney, soldier, Brigadier General, signed Constitution, signer of Declaration

1723-1794, John Whitherspoon, Clergyman, congressman, Presbyterian, Calvinist churchman, President of Princeton 1768-1776, signed Declaration, author of theological work

1724-1777, John Morton, congressman, land surveyor, JP, signed Declaration, believed that his “signing of the Declaration of Independence to have been the most glorious service that I ever rendered my country” (OI, 409)

Mason 1724-1790, Rev. Lyman Hall, Clergyman, physician, congressman, signer of Declaration

Mason 1724-1792, Henry Laurens, merchant, congressman, member of the American Philosophical Society 1772-1792, help negotiate peace with Great Britain and signer of Treaty of Paris 1782

1725-1776, Samuel Ward, farmer, congressman, founder and trustee of Rhode Island College now Brown 1764-1776, helped secure George Washington as commander-in-chief

Mason 1725-1783, James Otis, attorney, congressman, soldier, author, recognized in England as chief of “the rebellious spirit” (OI, 410), mentor of Samuel Adams and Sons of Liberty 1761-1769, “was considered the acknowledged political leader of Massachusetts Bay” (OI, 410), mercifully struck by lightening ending his tormenting last days

1725-1783, Rev. Samuel Cooper, Clergyman, pastor of puritan Brattle Square Church in Boston 1747, declined presidency of Harvard 1774, British often ordered his arrest for advocating American Independence, “close friend of Adams, Franklin, and other patriots” (OI, 385)

1725-1792, George Mason, congressman, drafted Virginia’s first constitution with Declaration of Rights from which Jefferson drew the Declaration, refused to sign because it did not abolish slavery, known as the “Father of the Bill of Rights” (OI, 407)

1726-1790, James Bowdoin, early delegate

1726-1795, William Prescott, congressman, farmer, soldier, Colonel of Minute Men, said, “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes!” 1775 (OI, 415)

Mason 1726-1796, Oliver Wolcott, congressman, soldier, Major General militia, signed Declaration, Governor Connecticut 1796-1797, both father and son was also Governor of Connecticut

1726-1798, Lewis Morris, jurist, congressman, signed Declaration, first board of regents of Univ. of New York

1726-1806, George Wythe, attorney, Mayor of Williamsburg, congressman, Professor of Law at College of William and Mary first chair of law in a college in America 1779-1790

Mason 1727-1795, Daniel Roberdeau, merchant, congressman, manager of Pennsylvania Hospital 1756-1758, 1766-1776, Warden of Philadelphia 1756-1761, Brigadier General 1776, volunteered in Congress to establish mine 1778 and build Fort Reberdeau to protect

1727-1819, William Samuel Johnson, congressman, first president of Columbia College 1787-1800, helped organize Protestant Episcopal Church in America

Mason 1727-1820, William Ellery, attorney, sailor, signer of Declaration, active in abolishing slavery, congressman, record of being made a Mason in St. John’s Lodge, Boston 10-12-1748, on rolls of St. John Lodge No. 4, Hartford, CT, 2-8-1763.

Mason 1728-1784, Caesar Rodney, congressman, soldier, Capt. of Kent County Militia 1756 Delaware, signed Declaration, rode 80 miles on horseback to vote for Independence just in time, Major General 1777, president of Delaware 1778-1782

1728-1814, Mercy Otis Warren, author, historian, sister of James Warren, author if A History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution 1805

Mason 1729-1789, Richard Caswell, attorney, Major-General in state militia, Governor of North Carolina, member of Continental Congress, member of St. John’s Lodge No. 3, New Bern, NC, deputy grand master of North Carolina on Dec. 11, 1787, and grand master Nov. 18, 1788.

Mason 1729-1795, Josiah Bartlett, physician, jurist, President (Governor) of New Hampshire 1790-1794, signed Declaration; Mason not known but letter to son Ezra said, “I attended a Mason meeting last night, and as soon as You can I wish you would join the Masons.”

Mason 1730-1781, Richard Stockton, attorney, congressman, tutored Elias Boudinot, Joseph Reed, recruited Rev. Dr. John Witherspoon for president of Princeton 1768, Supreme Court of New Jersey 1774-1776, Chief Justice 1776, signed Declaration

Mason 1730-1794, Baron Frederick William Augustus von Steubun, soldier in Pressian Army, sent by Benjamin Franklin to serve American Continental Army under Washington 1777, drilled troops at Valley Forge 1777-1778

1730-1796, Daniel Carroll, signed Constitution, helped with Bill of Rights

1731-1782, Charles Lee, soldier, Major-General in Continental Army, traitor helped British draw up plan to defeat America

Mason 1731-1796, Samuel Huntington, attorney, congressman

1731-1811, William Williams, congressman, soldier, judge, signed Declaration

Mason 1731-1814, Rev. Robert Treat Paine, Clergyman, attorney, congressman, judge of Massachusetts Supreme Court[73]

Mason 1732-1794, Richard Henry Lee, congressman, educated in England, made the resolution that led to the Declaration, proposing, “these States are of a right and ought to be free and independent States” (OI, 403), signed Declaration, authored first National Thanksgiving Day Proclamation issued by Congress 1777, helped frame Bill of Rights

Mason 1732-1799, George Washington, Commander-in-Chief and first U.S. President 1789 and known as the Father of His Country

1732-1802, Martha Dandridge Custis Washington, daughter of Colonel John Dandridge, after husband Daniel Parke Custis died, was one of the wealthiest in Virginia, and married George Washington in 1759

Mason 1732-1808, John Dickinson, attorney, soldier, Brigadier-General Pennsylvania Militia 1775-1777, know as the “Penman of the Revolution,” president of both Delaware and Pennsylvania and signed Constitution, but refused to sign Declaration thinking it premature, made Brigadier General of Delaware militia, fifth president of Delaware in 1781 and resigned in 1782 to become president of Pennsylvania; made and raised a master Mason in Lodge No. 18, Dover, Delaware under Pennsylvania charter

Mason 1732-1810, William Cushing, attorney, member of convention that formed the first state constitution of Massachusetts, appointed as original Chief Justice of Superior Court of MA 1777, first Chief Justice of the state under state constitution in 1780, and then First Chief Justice 1789 of Supreme Court by George Washington and administered oath to Washington to his 2nd term 1793; member of St. Andrew’s Lodge, Boston, MA

1733-1797, James Duane, attorney, district judge by Pres. George Washington 1789-1794

1733-1798, George Read, attorney, congressman, signed Declaration and Constitution (only 1 of 6), helped frame Bill of Rights, Chief Justice Delaware 1793-1798

1733-1804, Rev. Joseph Priestly, Clergyman, scientist, knew several languages, for French Revolution, moved to America

1733-1806, Richard Law, attorney, congressman, U.S. District Judge by George Washington, mayor of New London

Mason 1733-1810, Benjamin Lincoln, farmer, soldier, congressman, Major-General, handed General Cornwallis’ sword at his surrender at Battle of Yorktown, member of Society for Propagating the Gospel Among the Indians and Others 1794-1810

1733-1816, Samuel Johnson, attorney, congressman, helped frame Bill of Rights, first trustee of Univ. of North Carolina

1734-1802, Robert Aitken, publisher Pennsylvania Magazine

1734-1808, Peter Sylvester, attorney, congressman, county judge, regent for Univ. of New York, helped Bill of Rights

1734-1811, Sephen Moylan, soldier, businessman, became General George Washington’s aide, Brigadier General

Mason 1734-1817, Thomas McKean, attorney, congressman, signed Declaration, Chief Justice of Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, governor of Delaware 1777 and Pennsylvania 1799-1808

1734-1820, Daniel Boone, frontiersman, hunter, served with George Washington,

1735-1803, James Beattie, author, Professor of Moral Philosophy at Marischal College, author of Nature and Immutability of Truth refuting David Hume’s work, which “pleased numerous of the Founding Fathers, particularly Benjamin Rush (1770)” (OI, 377).

Mason 1735-1818, Paul Revere, merchant, soldier, made famous midnight ride to warn patriots in Lexington and Concord of British attack and for Hancock and Adams to flee, made first official seal for the Colonies, made state seal for Massachusetts, made gunpowder, copper balls, first metal plating for frigates, the old ironsides, wore uniforms of the Revolution every day until his death

Mason 1735-1826, John Adams, attorney, 2nd U.S. President; Mason St. John’s No. 1, Portsmouth, NH

Mason 1736-1799, Patrick Henry, attorney, Secretary of State by George Washington, congressman, probably a Freemason.[74]

1736-1800, Benjamin Huntington, attorney, congressman, helped with Bill of Rights

Mason 1737-1789, Ethan Allen, soldier, author, Colonel by George Washington, Major-General; Mason thought to have received Windsor, VT, July 7, 1777, but may not, while brother was a member of Vermont Lodge No. 1

1737-1789, Silas Deane, attorney, minister to France, lost faith in America and accused of being a traitor for letters seeking reconciliation with England

Mason 1737-1791, Francis Hopkinson, attorney, congressman, first president of American Philosophical Society 1769, “author of the first purely American hymn book, setting the Psalms to music” (OI, 395)

Mason 1737-1793, John Hancock, soldier, first signer of Declaration, Major-General of Massachusetts Militia

1737-1798, Jacob Duché, Clergyman, Anglican, authored political sermons, asked for recall of Declaration, branded traitor, fled to Britain, later allowed to return

1737-1805, John Pickering, attorney, congressman, appointed U.S. Judge by George Washington

Mason 1737-1809, Thomas Paine, soldier, congressman, published Common Sense (1776), most widely read call for independence, Rights of Man (1787), and deistic Age of Reason which brought much criticism

1737-1832, Charles Carroll, farmer, signed Declaration, helped with Bill of Rights, longest lived of signers of Declaration

Mason 1738-1789, Thomas Nelson, Jr., congressman, soldier, signed Declaration, commander-in-chief of State forces in Virginia 1777-1781, Governor of Virginia 1781 shortly and resigned

1738-1796, Nathaniel Gorham, merchant, congressman, signed Constitution

1738-1816, Samuel Holton, physician, congressman

Mason 1738-1824, Rufus Putnam, congressman, soldier, est. first settlement in Northwest Territory, Marietta, OH, appointed Judge in NW Territory by George Washington, known as Father of Ohio

1739-1800, John Rutledge, attorney, congressman, educated by clergyman father, signed Constitution, Supreme Court by George Washington 1789-1791, Chief Justice South Carolina, suffered periods of insanity ended his career

Mason 1739-1812, George Clinton, sailor, soldier, attorney, president of ratification convention of the Constitution, known as “Father of New York” (OI, 383), VP of U.S. 1805-1812, Brigadier General of American Revolution 1777, member of Warren Lodge No. 17, NYC, served as master 1800, represented lodge at Grand Steward’s Lodge on May 28, 1800, referred to as Past Master and honorary member of Courtland Lodge No. 34; many lodges were chartered as Clinton in New York

1740-1799, William Paca, attorney, congressman, signed Declaration, Governor of Maryland 1782-1785, appointed U.S. Judge by Pres. George Washington 1789-1799

1740-1821, Elias Boudinot, attorney, author, converted to Christianity during Great Awakening, signer of Declaration, first president of American Bible Society 1816-21, member New Jersey Bible Society 1818, published “A Star in the West (1816) in which he attempted to prove that the American Indians were the ten lost tribes of Israel” (OI, 379)

Mason 1741-1785, Joseph Reed, attorney, congressman, soldier, Washington’s military secretary, Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, said British offered

Mason 1741-1801, Benedict Arnold, soldier, druggist, bookseller; hero at Battle of Saratoga, turned traitor in plan to turn over West Point to British; Mason Hiram Lodge No. 1, New Haven CT; but May 16, 1781, Solomon Lodge No. 1, Poughkeepsie, NY, took him off for being a traitor

1741-1811, Samuel Chase, attorney, signed Declaration, appointed to Supreme Court by George Washington

1741-1811, Thomas FitzSimons, soldier, congressman, helped with Bill of Rights, founder of insurance company, trustee Univ. of Pennsylvania

Mason 1741-1819, John Langdon, congressman, helped with Bill of Rights, signed Constitution

1741-1821, William Farley, author, congressman

1742-1786, Nathanael Green, soldier, tutored in Latin and geometry, was Quaker until expelled, Brigadier-, Major-, than Quarter-Master General

Mason 1742-1790, William Hooper, attorney, signer of Declaration, congressman

Mason 1742-1798, James Wilson, attorney, educator, congressman, signed Declaration and Constitution (1 of 6), Supreme Court by George Washington 1789-1798, first Professor of Law in the College of Philadelphia 1790 and Univ. of Pennsylvania 1791, with Thomas McKean co-authored America’s first commentaries on Constitution 1792

Mason 1742-1812, Jonathan Bayard Smith, congressman, soldier, trustee Princeton and Univ. of Pennsylvania, member American Philosophical Society

1743-1787, Thomas Stone, attorney, congressman, initially opposed Declaration because he hated war, but signed Declaration, helped craft Articles of Confederation 1778,

1743-1802, John Lowell, attorney, soldier, congressman, U.S. Federal Judge 1789-1802

1743-1811, Francis Dana, attorney, a “Son of Liberty” (OI, 384), member of Society for Propagating of the Gospel Among Indians and others 1787-1810

Mason? 1743-1826, Thomas Jefferson, attorney, congressman, principle author of Declaration of Independence, author of Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom, 3rd U.S. President, helped found Univ. of Virginia 1819, known as Father of Univ. of Virginia

1744-1808, James Sullivan, attorney, congressman, helped with 11th amendment, member of Society for Propagating the Gospel Among the Indians and Others, principal founder of Massachusetts Historical Society

Mason 1744-1814, Elbridge Gerry, merchant, congressman, signer of Declaration

1744-1818, Abigail Adams, wife of John Adams

1744-1826, Luther Martin, attorney, congressman, refused to sign Constitution because it did not end slavery

1744-1826, Rev. James Hall, Clergyman, soldier, active in American Bible Society

Mason 1745-1790, David Brearly, attorney, arrested for treason by Great Britain, Chief Justice Supreme Court of New Jersey 1779, one of compiles of Episcopal Prayer book 1786; Mason first Grand Master of Masons of New Jersey from 1986 until death

1745-1799, William Dawes, merchant, tanner, one of famous midnight riders who road with Paul Revere 1775, who warned John Hancock and John Adams in time to save them

Mason 1745-1803, John Barry, sailor, soldier; Mason Lodge #2, Philadelphia, PA, 10-12-1795

Mason 1745-1806, William Paterson, attorney, congressman, founded literary society called Well-Meaning Society, signed Constitution, helped with Bill of Rights, appointed to Supreme Court by G. Washington 1793-1806

Mason 1745-1807, Oliver Ellsworth, congressman, to Supreme Court by George Washington, became Chief Justice, while a student at Princeton became charter member of St. John’s Lodge at Princeton, NJ, 12-27-1765, studied theology then went into law, member of Constitutional Convention 1787, “it was through his insistence that the words ‘national government’ were removed from the draft and ‘government of the United States’ substituted.”[75]

Mason 1745-1813, Benjamin Rush, physician, educator, congressman, signed Declaration, Surgeon General of Continental Army 1777-1778, on of principal co-authors of Pennsylvania constitution 1789-1790, Treasurer of U.S. Mint under Pres. John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison, founder of Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery 1774, known as “Father of American Medicine” (OI, 419)[76]

1745-1815, Richard Bassett, attorney, congressman

1745-1819, Caleb Strong, attorney, congressman, signed Constitution, VP American Bible Society

1745-1823, John Treadwell, attorney, congressman, Lt. Gov. Connecticut 1798-1809, Governor 1809-1811

Mason 1745-1829, John Jay, attorney, congressman, author first manual on military discipline 1777, with Alexander Hamilton and James Madison author of Federalist Papers, first Chief Justice of Supreme Court by George Washington, VP of American Bible Society 1816-1821 and president 1816-1821, member of American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions[77]

1745-1829, Timothy Pickering, attorney, soldier, congressman, Postmaster General under President George Washington, Secretary of State under Pres. John Adams

1746-1788, William Churchill Houston, Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy at Princeton 1771, soldier, congressman

1746-1799, Increase Sumner, attorney, educator, congressman, Governor of Massachusetts 1797-1799, sworn in for third term on death bed

Mason 1746-1807, Rev. John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg, Clergyman, soldier, congressman, Lutheran pasturing in Woodstock, VA, Major-General, helped frame Bill of Rights

1746-1825, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, attorney, congressman, Brigadier General, signed Constitution, a founder of South Carolina College 1801, first president of Charleston Bible Society 1810-1825, VP of American Bible Society 1816-1825

Mason 1747-1812, Gunning Bedford, Jr., attorney, soldier, appointed by U.S. Federal Judge by President George Washington; Mason Washington Lodge No. 14 raised Sept. 11, 1782 (now Delaware Lodge No. 1) and also served as master of the lodge

Mason 1748-1779, Count & General Casimir Pulaski, soldier, Brigadier General of Calvary, helped save Charleston, corner stone of grave in Savannah laid by Lafayette 1824

1748-1782, Martha Jefferson, wife of Thomas Jefferson, her second husband, died early after six children

1748-1808, Jonathan Mitchell Sewell, attorney, poet, orator, authored ballad “War and Washington” which became popular in Continental Army 1776, authored 3 odes sung to President Washington when he visited Portsmouth, New Hampshire 1789, authored “A Verification of President Washington’s Excellent Farewell Address” 1798, pronounced a eulogy after Washington’s death in December 1799

1748-1828, William Few, attorney, original trustee for Univ. of Georgia 1785, inspector of state prisons, president of Manhattan Bank 1804-1814

1749-1800, William Blount, congressman, conspirator to use British, Indians, and frontiersmen to take Florida and Louisiana from Spain in 1797, later became president of Tennessee

1749-1806, Rev. Matthias Burnet, Clergyman, pastor of Congregational church in Norwalk, CT

1749-1815, David Ramsey, congressman, physician, author, History of the Revolution South Carolina 1785, History of the American Revolution 1789, Life of Washington 1807, History of the United States published posthumously 1816-1817

1749-1822, Jared Ingersoll, congressman, judge

Mason 1750-1801, Rev. Frederick Augustus Conrad Muhlenberg, Clergyman, pastor of Christ German Lutheran congregation in New York 1773-1776, original speaker of U.S. House of Representatives 1789-1797 where he helped frame Bill of Rights

Mason 1750-1818, Thomas Posey, congressman, soldier, Brigadier General, VP American Bible Society

1750-1825, William Gray, merchant, soldier, congressman, VP American Bible Society

1750-1826, Isaac Shelby, congressman, soldier, moved a lot, helped General Andrew Jackson with treaty with Chickasaw Indians, VP American Bible Society

1750-1827, William Phillips, congressman, member of several Gospel societies, including VP for American Bible Society 1820-1827

Mason 1750-1831, Stephen Girard, sailor, underwrote 3 million dollars to capitalize State Bank of United States, became “sheet anchor” of government credit

1751-1799, James Iredell, attorney, appointed by George Washington to Supreme Court 1790-1799

Mason 1751-1824, Rev. William Rogers, Clergyman, educator, chaplain of Pennsylvania rifle regiment, militia, and legislature, Professor of Oratory and English Literature at College of Philadelphia 1789-1792, VP of Religious Historical Society of Philadelphia 1819

Mason 1751-1829, Henry Dearborn, physician, soldier, congressman, at Valley Forge, Major-General, Secretary of War under Thomas Jefferson, became a member on March 3, 1774, but was not made a master Mason until April 7, 1777 (a lot was happening between those years), was a visitor at American Union Lodge of CT, April 7, 1779, and several of his sons were named after his Mason friends

Mason 1751-1836, James Madison, congressman, signed Constitution, with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay author of the Federalist Papers, 2 terms as U.S. President 1809-1817[78]

Mason 1752-1810, Jacob Broom, farmer, businessman, prepared maps for General George Washington prior to Battle of Brandywine 1777, drew the map for Washington, signed Constitution, Christian Ferry Lodge No. 14, and was secretary and treasurer and junior warden

1752-1816, Gouverneur Morris, attorney, congressman, soldier, signer of Constitution, most active of Constitutional Convention speaking 173 times known as “the penman of the Constitution” (OI, 409)

Mason 1752-1825, John Brooks, physician, soldier, president of Middlesex County Bible Society, Governor of Massachusetts 1816, re-elected 7 years in a row, friend of Washington, Washington Lodge No. 10

1752-1830, John Davenport, attorney, soldier, congressman

1752-1844, Gabiel Duvall, attorney, soldier, Comptroller under Pres. Thomas Jefferson, to Supreme Court by Pres. James Madison 1811-1835

Mason 1753-1813, Edmund Randolph, attorney, congressman, voice in Bill of Rights, first Attorney General of U.S. by Pres. George Washington, Secretary of State under Pres. George Washington

Mason 1753-1816, James McHenry, physician, soldier, congressman, military secretary to George Washington, Secretary of War under Pres. George Washington and John Adams, founder and president of Baltimore Bible Society 1813

1753-1822, William Jones, merchant, soldier, congressman, Governor Rhode Island 1811-1817, president of Rhode Island Bible Society, VP American Bible Society

Mason 1753-1823, Joseph Bloomfield, attorney, educated at Rev. Enoch Green’s Classical Academy, Captain in New Jersey, personally carried Declaration of Independence to Fort Stanwix in 1776, member of New Jersey Bible Society, made Brigadier-General by President James Madison; Mason Bristol Lodge No. 25, Bristol, PA, served as master 1782; affiliated with Trenton Lodge No. 5, Trenton, NJ, in 1790, grand master of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey 1789-80

1753-1834, Jonas Galusha, soldier, Governor of Vermont, member of Baptist Church, VP American Bible Society

Mason 1754-1807, Abraham Baldwin, Minister, Professor of Divinity at Yale, chaplain in Revolutionary Army 1777-83, “Father of University of Georgia” (OI, 375) Affiliate of American Revolutionary Lodge 

Mason 1754-1812, Joel Barlow, Minister, author, poet, epic poem The Vision of Columbus 1807; President of Bank of Washington; Mason St. John’s Lodge No. 4, Hartford, CT, “admitted” probably affiliate, Jan. 9, 1788

1754-1837, John Hamilton, soldier, Major-General, congressman

1754-1841, Joseph Nourse, soldier, congressman, VP American Bible Society

1755-1795, William Gradford, Theologian, attorney, soldier, Attorney General of Pennsylvania, made U.S. Attorney by President George Washington in 1794

Mason 1755-1827, Rufus King, attorney, soldier, congressman, helped with Bill of Rights, minister to Great Britain by Pres. George Washington and later by Pres. John Quincy Adams, manager of American Bible Society

Mason 1755-1835, John Marshall, attorney, soldier, congressman, Secretary of State under Pres. John Adams, appointed Chief Justice to Supreme Court by Pres. John Adams, his unorthodox ruling in 1803 Marbury v. Madison made him principal founder of judicial review, VP American Bible Society, officer of American Sunday School Union

Mason 1756-1818, Henry Lee, soldier, became part of first Continental Dragoons 1777, Lt. Colonel, pronounces George Washington as “first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen” (OI, 403), father of Robert E. Lee

1756-1827, William Tilgham, congressman, loyalist, appointed by Pres. John Adams as “midnight judge” (OI, 425), trustee Univ. of Pennsylvania, Chief Justice Pennsylvania, VP American Bible Society, last ten years of his life refused to wear any clothes not made in U.S.

1756-1831, Andrew Kirkpatrick, attorney, believer in capital punishment and whipping post, VP New Jersey Bible Society 1810, trustee of Princeton Theological Seminary, VP American Bible Society 1818-1831

Mason 1757-1804, Alexander Hamilton, attorney, soldier, with James Madison and John Jay author of Federalist Papers, aid to George Washington, Major-General, called Aaron Burr dangerous and was killed by Burr in duel 1804[79]

1757-1832, Robert Troup, attorney, congressman, judge, helped found Geneva (now Hobart) College 1822, VP American Bible Society

Mason 1757-1834, Marquies de Lafayett, Captain in French dragoons 1774, joined Continental Army in America 1777 as Major-General without pay, longtime friend of George Washington, helped get France’s support, played role in French Revolution, returned for final tour of America at request of Pres. James Monroe 1824; was a lifetime member of the American Sunday School Union, known as “Hero of two worlds” and “America’s Marquis” (OI, 401)

1758-1799, Rev. Chandler Robbins, Clergyman, pastor of church in Plymouth 1759-1799, 1795 church had 2,500 members and was believed to be largest in Massachusetts

Mason 1758-1802, John Vining, attorney, congressman, helped Bill of Rights

Mason 1758-1802, Richard Dobbs Spaight, congressman, soldier, signed Constitution

1758-1803, James T. Callender, wrote History of the United States (1796), tried for sedition, accused Jefferson of dishonesty, cowardice, and immorality

1758-1808, Fisher Ames, congressman, “chosen by the Legislature of Massachusetts to deliver the oration at the death of George Washington (1800)” and “considered one of America’s premier and most elegant orators” (OI, 375) and declined presidency of Harvard

Mason 1758-1831, James Monroe, attorney, soldier, congressman, Secretary of State under Pres. James Madison, 5th U.S. President for 2 terms 1816-1925

1758-1843, Noah Webster, attorney, educator, congressman, published Grammatical Institute of the English Language, America’s first speller 1783-1785, began copyright campaign, visited with Ben Franklin in Philadelphia for 10 months on Americanization of spelling and wrote Dissertations on the English Language 1789 and The American Dictionary of the English Language 1828, helped found Amherst College

1759-1823, Zephaniah Swift, attorney, congressman, author, first American legal text System of Laws in Connecticut, member of Abolition Society 1795, Chief Justice Connecticut 1806-1819,

1759-1842, Jeremiah Smith, attorney, soldier, congressman, Chief Justice New Hampshire

Mason 1760-1824, Jonathan Dayton, attorney, soldier, Captain in Continental Army 1776-83, congressman, probably member of Temple Lodge No. 1, was present at Grand Lodge of New Jersey on Dec. 30, 1788

1760-1831, Richard Allen, Clergyman, est. Free African Society, 1787, helped “frame Bill of Rights” and ordained a deacon in an independent Black Methodist church which he helped found (1799), considered the founder and first Bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) donomination

 

B. Founding Era – 1760-1805 – Men 16 Years Old+ by 1789

24 with 8 Freemasons, for 33% — Men Born 1761+ & Before 1774: 16 Years Old+ by 1789

1761-1816, Samuel Dexter, attorney, congressman, member of Society for Propagating the Gospel Among the Indians and Others

1762-1829, Bushrod Washington, attorney, soldier, congressman, nephew of George Washington, signed Declaration, Supreme Court by Pres. John Adams, executer of Washington’s will and inherited Mt. Vernon, supervised John Marshall’s Life of George Washington, VP American Bible Society, one of original VP’s of American Sunday School Union

1762-1830, William Giles, attorney, governor of Virginia

1762-1848, Rev. Ashbel Green, Clergyman, soldier, minister at Second Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia 1787-1812, chaplain of Congress 1792-1800, wrote historic declaration against slavery, author of plan for Princeton Theological Seminary

1763-1816, George Madison, soldier, congressman, Governor of Kentucky, VP American Bible Society

1763-1837, Rev. Abiel Holmes, Clergyman, Congregationalist, pastor of First Church in Cambridge 1792-1829, historian Annals of America from the Discovery of Columbus in the Year 1492 to the Year 1826, first extensive attempt at a history, father of Oliver Wendell Holmes

1763-1847, James Kent, attorney, congressman, known as the “Father of American Jurisprudence” (OI, 399) along with Justice Joseph Story

Mason 1761-1811, William Eaton, soldier, Capt. in U.S. Army, Consul to Tunis by President John Adams, Naval Agent to Barbary States by President Thomas Jefferson, elected to Massachusetts legislature 1807, made a Freemason in North Star Lodge, Manchester, VT, 1792, wrote a eulogy for George Washington, the last verse concludes, “Approving Heaven, with fostering hand, Gave Masons triumph through this land; And firmly to secure our craft, From bigot rage and envy’s shaft, Sent a Grand Master, Freedom’s son, The God-like patriot, Washington!”[80]

1765-1834, Charles Goldsborough, attorney, congressman, VP American Bible Society 1819-1834

Mason 1765-1845, John Cotton Smith, attorney, congressman, Justice Supreme Court Connecticut, first president of Connecticut Bible Society, VP American Bible Society 1816-1831 and president 1831-1845, member American Board of Foreign Missions 1826-1845

1766-1835, James Brown, attorney, diplomat, ministry to France by President James Monroe (1823-29), VP American Bible Society

Mason 1767-1845, Andrew Jackson, attorney, congressman, 17th U.S. President

1767-1848, John Quincy Adams, attorney, known as “Old Man Eloquent” for defense of antislavery cause and “the Hell-Hound of Slavery” for intense opposition of slavery, 6th U.S. President (OI, 374)

1768-1843, Smith Thompson, attorney, congressman, Chief Justice New York, Supreme Court by Pres. James Monroe and opposed Chief Justice John Marshall on many issues, VP American Bible Society 1816-1830

Mason 1769-1828, Dewitt Clinton, attorney, Governor of N.Y., 1817-21, 1825-28; manager and VP American Bible Society (1816-27), raised a master Mason in Holland Lodge No. 16 (now No. 8) Sept. 3, 1790, serving as master in 1793, then grand master of Masons of the Grand Lodge of New York 1806-1819, knighted in the Holland Lodge May 17, 1792, served grand commander of Knights Templar of NY from 1814-1828

1771-1834, William Johnson, attorney, appointed to Supreme Court by Thomas Jefferson

1772-1820, James Berrill, Jr., attorney, congressman

Mason 1772-1834, William Wirt, attorney, author, congressman, U.S. Attorney by Pres. James Madison, prosecutor in Aaron Burr conspiracy trail, best known as author of Sketches of the Life and Character of Patrick Henry 1818, U.S. Attorney General by Pres. James Monroe 1817-1829, was the presidential candidate for the Anti-Mason Party 1832, early manager of American Sunday School Union, VP American Bible Society

Mason 1772-1849, Rev. David Lawrence Morril, Clergyman, studied medicine, pastor of Presbyterian Church of Goffstown 1802-1811, VP American Bible Society 1821-1830, manager in American Sunday School Union

1772-1853, Charles Caldwell, physician, author, “first introducer of true medical science into the Mississippi Valley” (OI, 381)

Mason 1773-1827, Thomas Worthington, congressman, Governor, VP American Bible Society 1816-1827

1773-1833, John Randolph of Roanoke, congressman, diplomat, descendent of John Rolfe and Pocahontas, minister to Russian by Pres. Andrew Jackson 1830

Mason 1774-1825, Daniel Tompkins, congressman, judge, Secretary of State under Pres. James Madison 1814, VP under Pres. James Monroe

1774-1844, Rev. Abner Kneeland, Clergyman, Universalist, congressman, translated N.T., liberal, pastor of Second Universalist Society 1827, expounded pantheism in Boston Investigator 1831, tried and convicted of both libel and blasphemy

 

C. Founding Era – 1760-1805 –Younger than 16 Years Old by 1789

10 with 4 Freemasons, for 40% — Men Born 1775, Not Founders But Children at Founding, Younger than 16 Years Old by 1789

1775-1850, circa, William Marbury, JP of D.C. under President John Adams; sued James Madison in 1803 Marbury v. Madison which jurists claim validated principle of judicial review

1776-1861, Walter Jones, attorney, Brigadier-General

Mason 1777-1840, Felix Grundy, attorney, congressman

1778-1844, William Gaston, attorney, congressman, VP American Bible Society

1779-1843, Francis Scott Key, attorney, author of National Anthem, “The Star-Spangled Banner”, manager and VP for American Sunday School Union from inception to his death 1791-1843, and VP of American Bible Society

Mason 1779-1845, Joseph Story, attorney, congressman, “grew up being strongly instructed in the principles of American liberty since his father was one of ‘Indians’ in the Boston Tea Party (1773)” (OI, 423), delivered eulogy on death of Washington 1800, Supreme Court by Pres. James Madison 1811-1845, considered founder of Harvard Law School, Professor of Law 1829-1845, “considered one of the most prolific judicial writers” (OI, 424), in 34 years on Supreme Court authored 286 with 269 being majority opinions, with Chancellor James Kent considered “Father of American Jurisprudence” (OI, 424)

1780-1842, Rev. William Ellery Channing, Clergyman, Unitarian, opponent of slavery, Federal Street Church, Boston (1803-42), opposed to Calvinism

Mason 1782-1852, Daniel Webster, attorney, congressman, Secretary of State 1841-1843, 1850-1852

1787-1850, Rev. William Cogswell, Clergyman, trustee of Andover Theological Seminary (1837)

Mason 1788-1857, Albion Parris, attorney, congressman, Governor Maine 1821-1826, second comptroller of U.S. Treasury 1836-1850

 

D. Founding Era – 1760-1805 –NOT Founders or New Residents

5 — 16 Years Old & Older in 1776 – But NOT Founders, NOT New American Residents

1711-1776, David Hume, Scottish philosopher, soldier, many theories harshly criticized by founding Fathers, author of A Treatise on Human Nature (1739)

1723-1780, Sir William Blackstone, attorney, famous his 4-volume Commentaries on the Laws of England, “probably more respected in America than in Great Britain and they became the premier legal work used by the Founders” (OI, 377)

1735-1794, Beccaria (Cesare Beccaria-Bonesana), attorney, educated Jesuit college at Parma, reformer of Italy’s judicial code

1738-1816, Rev. Bishop Richard Watson, Clergyman, England, educator, scientist, author, Professor of Chemistry 1764, Professor of the Regius Chair of Divinity 1771 Trinity College, answered Gibbon’s attack on Christianity in Gibbon’s Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire 1776, was one of two opponents Gibbons respected, authored Apology for the Bible against Thomas Paine’s work 1796, opposed to war with America and denounced slave trade

1738-1820, King George III, King of Great Britain during American Revolution

 

E. Outside Founding Era – Born Before 1760

27

0095-0046, B.C., Cato (Marcus Porcius Cato), Roman Philosopher, fought with Spartacus, became Tribune 67 B.C.

0350-0430, B.C., Plutarch, Greek philosopher who studied under Aristotle and Plato, believed reason basis of all consciousness, “pure intelligence of God” (OI, 414), author of Morals

1100-1155, Gratian, Clergyman, theologian, order of St. Benedict, his Harmony of Conflicting Canons also known as Gratian’s Decrees “was at the time thought by Popes and Bishops to be the most important book on church law; is considered the ‘Father of Canon Law’” (OI, 392)

1320-1384, John Wycliffe, Clergyman, master of Balliol College, England, “discovered that a relationship with God could be obtained without help of a priest or sacraments” (OI, 432), taught Scriptures were supreme authority, Rome pronounced him heretic, first person to try to translate Bible into English, after death full translation of Latin Vulgate into English 1388, followers became Lollards with John Huss spread Wycliffe teachings to nearly a national religion, known as “The Morning Star of the Reformation” (OI, 433) and Luther quoted from him a lot

1373-1415, John Huss, Clergyman, Catholic Priest, Bohemian reformer, study of Scripture

1451-1506, Christopher Columbus, 1492 sailed to America

1483-1546, Rev. Martin Luther, Clergyman, responsible for the Protestant Reformation

1490-1536, William Tyndale, Clergyman, theologian, trans. N.T., completed octavo edition 1526, author of Parable of the Wicked Mammon and Obedience of a Christian Man two main principles of the English Reformation and argued for supremacy of Scriptures

1533-1592, Michel de Montaigne, attorney, congressman, in France

1550-1650, circa, Puritans, sought strict religious life, purify Church of England

1552-1618, Sir Walter Raleigh, England, sailor, explorer, given 40,000 acres in Ireland, first settlers on Roanoke Island 1585, of second trip, Virginia Dare was born, becoming first English child born on American continent, eventually est. Jamestown, first permanent est. on continent

1553-1600, Rev. Richard Hooker, Clergyman, theologian, political philosopher, The Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity and considered the “Father of Anglicanism” (OI, 395)

1579-1633, Father Andrew White, Clergyman, English mission field, exiled to France, entered Society of Jesus (1605-1609), Professor of Theology, wrote famous Declaration Coloniae which provided purposes of colonies and terms of settlers, known as “The Apostle of Maryland” (OI, 430)

1583-1645, Hugo Grotius, Clergyman, attorney, one of the founders of international law, with publication of On the Law of War and Peace 1625

1588-1649, John Winthrop, attorney, congressman, “first Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony because he wanted to establish a Bible Commonwealth free from the ‘corruption’ of the Church of England” 1629-1634, 1637-1640, 1642-1644, 1646-1649, (OI, 431), est. first Church in Boston, wrote History of New England

1603-1684, Roger Williams, Clergyman, emigrated to Purity Colony 1624, non-conformist and extreme separatist, insisted on complete repudiation of Church of England, pastored Plymouth 1632-1633, Salem in defiance of General Court 1634, convicted of spreading “dangerous opinions” 1635 (OI, 430), founded Providence and Colony of Rhode Island on basis of complete religious toleration 1636, founded first Baptist church in America 1639, got patent on Rhode Island from England 1643, 1st President of Rhode Island 1654-1657

1605-1675, Cecilius Calvert, charter for Maryland, granting him “rights of a feudal sovereign” but never visited

1620-1700, Pilgrims, means wanderer, typically Congregational in belief, “spiritual form of church government they embraced was closer to that of a republic than that of a monarchy or oligarchy” (OI, 413-414)

1632-1694, Samuel de Puffendorf, Clergyman, Sweden, Lutheran, congressman, political philosopher, published complete system of universal law 1660, Eight Books on the Law of Nature and Nations 1672 and summary On the Duty of Man and Citizen 1673, became historian for Swedish King 1677

1632-1704, John Locke, Clergyman, political philosopher, Theologian, author, Letter Concerning Toleration (1689), An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1693), and The Reasonableness of Christianity (1695)—not necessarily clergy

1637-1715, Charles Calvert, 2nd proprietor of Maryland

1644-1718, William Penn, Clergyman, congressman, est. government of and became Governor of Pennsylvania, “holy experiment” (OI, 412)

1658-1743, Rev. James Blair, Clergyman, Episcopal, missionary to Virginia, helped found and became president of William and Mary College (1692)

1688-1747, Rev. Jonathan Dickinson, Clergyman, pastor of Congregational church at Elizabethtoown, NJ, 40 years, first president of College of New Jersey, later Princeton

1689-1755, Charles Louis Secondat Baron de la Brede et de Montesquieu, political philosopher in France, author The Spirit of Laws (1748), his theory of three distinct forms of government, “the separation of powers,” and “checks and balances” became part of American constitutional philosophy

1689-1781, Farfaxes, William, George, Sarrah Cary Fairfax, landowner, President of Council on Virginia

1703-1758, Rev. Jonathan Edwards, Clergyman, Congregationalist, leader of Great Awakening, president of Princeton

 

F. Outside Founding Era – Born After 1773, Children <16 Years 1789

38

1791-1873, Peter Vroom, attorney, congressman, judge, Governor of New Jersey 1829, 1831, 1833-1836, Chief Justice New Jersey 1853, VP American Bible Society, VP American Colonization Society, member of American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions

Mason 1792-1875, Charles Finney, Clergyman, Mason then anti-Mason, attorney, 1821 religious experience, revivals spread through New York, New England, 1824-1834, weekly New York Evangelist, president of Oberlin College, abolitionist and anti-Mason, yet had received degrees in Meridian Sun Lodge No. 32, Warren, CT, 1816, served as secretary pro tem at 2-24-1820, discharged at his own request on 5-6-1824 when he received his license to as a minister by St. Lawrence Presbytery; he even published anti-Masonic newspaper The Christian Cynosure with David Blanchard and Bishop David Edwards in formation of National Christian Association 1868 whose purpose was to oppose all secret societies, and this grew into the American Party in 1872 which was short lived; dissension and jealousies in ranks made movement die

1795-1858, Dred Scott, slave on Virginia plantation of Captain Peter Blow, passed to several owners, wealthy sons of Blow filled suits in Missouri State courts to free Scott, Supreme Court ruled could not free him while in another state, later emancipated by Taylor Blow

1801-1841, Napoleon Achille Murat, congressman, accompanied Lafayette on final tour of America 1824, alderman of Tallahassee 1824 and mayor in 1825

1802-1876, Harriet Martineau, England, deaf, author, Society in America from visit 1834-1836

1803-1882, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Clergyman, Unitarian, Second Unitarian Church Bonston 1829, abolitionists, formed Transcendental Club 1836, “leading figure in removing all vestiges of Christianity from Unitarianism by the introduction of mysticism and transcendentalism into that movement” (OI, 388)

1805-1859, Alexis Henri Charles Maurice Clerel Comte de Tocqueville, French observer of America, wrote De la Démocratie en Améerique (Democracy in America) and “wrote first book of reasoned politics on democratic government in America and concluded that equality of condition was the foundation of American democracy and was amazed that without violence America had been transformed from what was essentially aristocratic rule to a more extended suffrage” (OI, 426)

1809-1865, Abraham Lincoln, attorney, 16th U.S. President

1809-1894, Robert Winthrop, attorney, congressman, member of Massachusetts Historical Society 1839-1894

1823-1896, Charles Carleton Coffin, author, congressman

1826-1906, Christopher Columbus Langdell, attorney, Dane Professor of Law at Harvard Law School 1870-1895, originator of case-law method of study from Darwin’s thesis of evolution as applied to law, where decisions by judges become standard of law rather than literal wording of the Constitution

Mason 1831-1881, James A. Garfield, Clergyman, attorney, Christian Church, Professor of Ancient Languages and Literature in Hiram College, Ohio 1856, president 1857-1861, congressman, Civil War Brigadier-General, 12th President of U.S.

1831-1900, William Wirt Henry, attorney, congressman, compiler of work of Patrick Henry

Mason 1833-1899, Robert Ingersol, attorney, soldier, congressman, known as “The Great Agnostic” (OI, 397), for following Darwinism and humanistic rationalism

1841-1932, Oliver Wendell Holmes, attorney, appointed Supreme Court by Theodore Roosevelt 1902-1932

1856-1941, Louis Brandis, attorney, to Supreme Courty by President Woodrow Wilson

1862-1948, Charles Evans Hughes, congressman, Governor of New York 1906-1910, appointed Chief Justice Supreme Court by Pres. Herbert Hoover

1870 - 1938, Benjamin Cardozo, attorney, Supreme Court by Pres. Herbert Hoover, judicial positivism

Mason 1870-1964, Roscoe Pound, attorney, legal scholar, dean of Harvard Divinity 1899-1903, helped Taiwan judicial system, legal positivist, shared with Learned Hand reputation of being nation’s leading jurist outside of the U.S. Supreme Court

1874-1948, Charles Beard, and wife Mary (1876-1958), historians, political scientists, authors, including History of the United States (1921) and Rise of American Civilization (1942)

1874-1950, William E. Woodward, author, VP and director of several banks, New American History, considered by many to be blatant revisionist

1878-1949, James Truslow Adams, historian

1882-1965, Felix Frankferter, attorney, Professor of Law Harvard 1914, founder of ACLU 1920, advisor to FDR, appointed to Supreme Court 1939-1962

1891-1974, Earl Warren, attorney, first to win both Democratic and Republican nomination for Governor 1946, Supreme Court by Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower 1952, Chief Justice 1953-1969, chairman of investigation of assassination of President Kennedy, liberal to extreme on civil liberties, helping to reshape Constitution into evolving document, involved in Court “assault on public religious expressions” (OI, 428)

Mason 1892-1954, Robert Houghwout Jackson, attorney, appointed by FDR to general counsel to Bureau of Internal Revenue 1934, Attorney General under FDR, appointed to International Military Tribunal for Nürmberg Trials by Pres. Harry S. Truman 1945

1898-1980, William Orville Douglas, attorney, author, appointed by Pres. Franklin Roosevelt to Supreme Court and stayed longer than any in history (1939-1975), wrote Almanac of Liberty 1954

1900-1989, Claude Pepper, attorney, congressman, sponsored bill that halted mandatory retirement for most Federal employees

1906-1990, circa, William Brennan, attorney, Supreme Court by President Dwight Eisenhower 1956-1990, “believed that the Constitution’s meaning should evolve to fit the changing standards of society; he struck down school prayer, upheld flag desecration, and upheld abortion” (OI, 380)

1907-1995, Warren Burger, attorney, to Supreme Court by Richard Nixon, moderate, controversial on abortion, affirmative action, separation of church and state

1908-1993, Thurgood Marshall, attorney, first African American to Supreme Court by Pres. Lyndon Johnson 1967-1992, liberal, affirmed right to have obscene material, opposed death penalty

1913-2000, circa, George Smathers, attorney, soldier, congressman

1915-1985, Potter Stewart, attorney, sailor, congressman, Supreme Court by Pres. Dwight De. Eisenhower 1958-1981, swing vote, moderate and at times liberal

1917-2000, circa, Byron White, attorney, sailor, congressman, was “Whizzer” for abilities as a running back, Supreme Court by Pres. John F. Kennedy

1920-2000, circa, John Paul Steven, attorney, sailor, Seventh Circuit by Pres. Gerald Ford, Supreme Court 1975, liberal and conservative on issues

1924-2005, William Rehnquist, attorney, Supreme Court by Pres. Richard Nixon 1972, to Chief Justice by Pres. Ronald Regan 1986, considered conservative and Court’s best historical scholars

1936-2000, Anthony Mcloed Kennedy, attorney, appointed Supreme Court by Pres. Ronald Regan

1936-2005, circa, Antonin Scalia, attorney, Supreme Court by Pres. Ronald Regan 1986, conservative

1948-2005, circa, Clarence Thomas, attorney, Supreme Court by Pres. George Bush 1991, approved by smallest margin in over 100 years, conservative on all issues upholding original intent

 

G. Clergymen = 48 in Barton

48 – 15 Before 1776; 28 >16 Years Old in 1776; 5 <16 Years Old in 1789

1100-1155, Gratian, Clergyman, theologian, order of St. Benedict, his Harmony of Conflicting Canons also known as Gratian’s Decrees “was at the time thought by Popes and Bishops to be the most important book on church law; is considered the ‘Father of Canon Law’” (OI, 392)

1320-1384, John Wycliffe, Clergyman, master of Balliol College, England, “discovered that a relationship with God could be obtained without help of a priest or sacraments” (OI, 432), taught Scriptures were supreme authority, Rome pronounced him heretic, first person to try to translate Bible into English, after death full translation of Latin Vulgate into English 1388, followers became Lollards with John Huss spread Wycliffe teachings to nearly a national religion, known as “The Morning Star of the Reformation” (OI, 433) and Luther quoted from him a lot

1373-1415, John Huss, Clergyman, Catholic Priest, Bohemian reformer, study of Scripture

1483-1546, Rev. Martin Luther, Clergyman, responsible for the Protestant Reformation

1490-1536, William Tyndale, Clergyman, theologian, trans. N.T., completed octavo edition 1526, author of Parable of the Wicked Mammon and Obedience of a Christian Man two main principles of the English Reformation and argued for supremacy of Scriptures

1553-1600, Rev. Richard Hooker, Clergyman, theologian, political philosopher, The Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity and considered the “Father of Anglicanism” (OI, 395)

1579-1633, Father Andrew White, Clergyman, English mission field, exiled to France, entered Society of Jesus (1605-1609), Professor of Theology, wrote famous Declaration Coloniae which provided purposes of colonies and terms of settlers, known as “The Apostle of Maryland” (OI, 430)

1583-1645, Hugo Grotius, Clergyman, attorney, one of the founders of international law, with publication of On the Law of War and Peace 1625

1603-1684, Roger Williams, Clergyman, emigrated to Purity Colony 1624, non-conformist and extreme separatist, insisted on complete repudiation of Church of England, pastored Plymouth 1632-1633, Salem in defiance of General Court 1634, convicted of spreading “dangerous opinions” 1635 (OI, 430), founded Providence and Colony of Rhode Island on basis of complete religious toleration 1636, founded first Baptist church in America 1639, obtained patent on Rhode Island from England 1643, first President of Rhode Island 1654-1657

1632-1694, Samuel de Puffendorf, Clergyman, Sweden, Lutheran, congressman, political philosopher, published complete system of universal law 1660, Eight Books on the Law of Nature and Nations 1672 and summary On the Duty of Man and Citizen 1673, became historian for Swedish King 1677

1632-1704, John Locke, Clergyman, political philosopher, Theologian, author, Letter Concerning Toleration (1689), An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1693), and The Reasonableness of Christianity (1695)—not necessarily clergy

1644-1718, William Penn, Clergyman, congressman, est. government of and became Governor of Pennsylvania, “holy experiment” (OI, 412)

1658-1743, Rev. James Blair, Clergyman, Episcopal, missionary to Virginia, helped found and became president of William and Mary College (1692)

1688-1747, Rev. Jonathan Dickinson, Clergyman, pastor of Congregational church at Elizabethtoown, NJ, 40 years, first president of College of New Jersey, later Princeton

1703-1758, Rev. Jonathan Edwards, Clergyman, Congregationalist, leader of Great Awakening, president of Princeton

>16 in 1776 – 4 of 28 Clergy Freemasons, for 14%--------------------

1710-1785, Rev. Jonathan Trumbull, Clergyman, businessman, judge, congressman, minister church in Colshester, CT, Governor Connecticut 1769-1784, only Colonial Governor who served from start to finish of American Revolution, “probably contributed more to the Revolution in the way of arms, munitions, supplies, men, etc., than any other Governor; was a close counsel of General Washington throughout the War” (OI, 427)

1711-1779, Eleazer Wheelock, Clergyman, popular preacher in Great Awakening, educated Indians, est. Dartmouth 1770 and remained president until death

1715-1757, Rev. Aaron Burr, Clergyman, Presbyterian and college president, called to First Church of Newark, involved in revivals of Great Awakening 1746

1715-1766, Rev. Samuel Farley, Clergyman, taught Benjamin Rush, president of Princeton 1761-1766

1716-1778, Phillip Livingston, merchant, congressman, signed Declaration, president of the New York Provincial Convention

1720-1766, Rev. Jonathan Mayhew, Clergyman, pastor of West Church, Boston 1747, preached Christianity on Scriptures and not Calvinism, defender of civil liberty, including on sermon after repeal of Stamp Act titled The Snare Broken 1766, well thought of by patriots including John Adams

1723-1761, Rev. Samuel Davies, Clergyman, influential in Great Awakening, Presbyterian, President of Princeton after friend, Jonathan Edwards

1723-1794, John Whitherspoon, Clergyman, congressman, Presbyterian, Calvinist churchman, President of Princeton 1768-1776, signed Declaration, author of theological work

1724-1790, Rev. Lyman Hall, Clergyman, physician, congressman, signer of Declaration

1725-1783, Rev. Samuel Cooper, Clergyman, pastor of puritan Brattle Square Church in Boston 1747, declined presidency of Harvard 1774, British often ordered his arrest for advocating American Independence, “close friend of Adams, Franklin, and other patriots” (OI, 385)

1731-1814, Rev. Robert Treat Paine, Clergyman, attorney, congressman, judge of Massachusetts Supreme Court

1733-1804, Rev. Joseph Priestly, Clergyman, scientist, knew several languages, for French Revolution, moved to America

1737-1798, Jacob Duché, Clergyman, Anglican, authored political sermons, asked for recall of Declaration, branded traitor, fled to Britain, later allowed to return

1738-1816, Rev. Bishop Richard Watson, Clergyman, England, educator, scientist, author, Professor of Chemistry 1764, Professor of the Regius Chair of Divinity 1771 Trinity College, answered Gibbon’s attack on Christianity in Gibbon’s Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire 1776, was one of two opponents Gibbons respected, authored Apology for the Bible against Thomas Paine’s work 1796, opposed to war with America and denounced slave trade

1744-1826, Rev. James Hall, Clergyman, soldier, active in American Bible Society

Mason, 1746-1807, Rev. John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg, Clergyman, soldier, congressman, Lutheran pasturing in Woodstock, VA, Major-General, helped frame Bill of Rights

1749-1806, Rev. Matthias Burnet, Clergyman, pastor of Congregational church in Norwalk, CT

Mason, 1750-1801, Rev. Frederick Augustus Conrad Muhlenberg, Clergyman, pastor of Christ German Lutheran congregation in New York 1773-1776, original speaker of U.S. House of Representatives 1789-1797 where he helped frame Bill of Rights

Mason, 1751-1824, Rev. William Rogers, Clergyman, educator, chaplain of Pennsylvania rifle regiment, militia, and legislature, Professor of Oratory and English Literature at College of Philadelphia 1789-1792, VP of Religious Historical Society of Philadelphia 1819

1754-1807, Abraham Baldwin, Clergyman, Professor of Divinity at Yale, chaplain in Revolutionary Army 1777-83, “Father of University of Georgia” (OI, 375)

1754-1812, Joel Barlow, Clergyman, author, poet, President of Bank of Washington

1755-1795, William Gradford, Clergyman, Theologian, attorney, soldier, Attorney General of Pennsylvania, made U.S. Attorney by President George Washington in 1794

1758-1799, Rev. Chandler Robbins, Clergyman, pastor of church in Plymouth 1759-1799, 1795 church had 2,500 members and was believed to be largest in Massachusetts

1760-1831, Richard Allen, Clergyman, est. Free African Society, 1787, helped “frame Bill of Rights” and ordained a deacon in an independent Black Methodist church which he helped found (1799), considered the founder and first Bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) donomination

1762-1848, Rev. Ashbel Green, Clergyman, soldier, minister at Second Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia 1787-1812, chaplain of Congress 1792-1800, wrote historic declaration against slavery, author of plan for Princeton Theological Seminary

1763-1837, Rev. Abiel Holmes, Clergyman, Congregationalist, pastor of First Church in Cambridge 1792-1829, historian Annals of America from the Discovery of Columbus in the Year 1492 to the Year 1826, first extensive attempt at a history, father of Oliver Wendell Holmes

Mason, 1772-1849, Rev. David Lawrence Morril, Clergyman, studied medicine, pastor of Presbyterian Church of Goffstown 1802-1811, VP American Bible Society 1821-1830, manager in American Sunday School Union

1774-1844, Rev. Abner Kneeland, Clergyman, Universalist, congressman, translated N.T., liberal, pastor of Second Universalist Society 1827, expounded pantheism in Boston Investigator 1831, tried and convicted of both libel and blasphemy

<16 in 1789 – 2 of 5 Freemasons for 40%-------------------

1780-1842, Rev. William Ellery Channing, Clergyman, Unitarian, opponent of slavery, Federal Street Church, Boston (1803-42), opposed to Calvinism

1787-1850, Rev. William Cogswell, Clergyman, trustee of Andover Theological Seminary (1837)

Mason, 1792-1875, Charles Finney, Clergyman, attorney, 1821 religious experience, revivals spread through New York, New England, 1824-1834, weekly New York Evangelist, president of Oberlin College, abolitionist and anti-Mason

1803-1882, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Clergyman, Unitarian, Second Unitarian Church Bonston 1829, abolitionists, formed Transcendental Club 1836, “leading figure in removing all vestiges of Christianity from Unitarianism by the introduction of mysticism and transcendentalism into that movement” (OI, 388)

Mason, 1831-1881, James A. Garfield, Clergyman, attorney, Christian Church, Professor of Ancient Languages and Literature in Hiram College, Ohio 1856, president 1857-1861, congressman, Civil War Brigadier-General, 12th President of U.S.

 

H. Tim LaHaye’s 54 Founding Fathers

As mentioned above, LaHaye’s top two were Freemasons George Washington and Benjamin Franklin, followed by Freemasons James Madison, Roger Sherman, and Alexander Hamilton, and non-Masons Gouverneur Morris and George Mason. Five out of LeHaye’s top seven were Freemasons, or 71%—remarkable. Then LeHaye give three more lists: two lists of 16 and one of 15—for 47—that gives us 54 significant Founding Fathers in LaHaye (47 + 5 + 2 = 54). Of the 54, 14 or 26% are unique to LaHaye (u=unique), and 19 of the 54 were Freemasons, for 35%; that means of the 54 Founding Fathers in LeHaye, 24 or 44% were Freemasons.

16 [81]

Mason 1754-1807, Abraham Baldwin, Congregationalist, army chaplain, lawyer, congressman

1745-1815, Richard Bassett, Methodist, lawyer, captain in Revolution, Governor

Mason 1747-1812, Gunning Bedford, Presbyterian, lawyer, state attorney general, member Continental Congress

Mason u1732-1800, John Blair, Episcopalian, leader in Revolution, Supreme Court Justice

Mason 1745-1790, David Brearly, Episcopalian, lawyer, colonel in Revolution, Chief Justice

Mason 1752-1810, Jacob Broom, Lutheran, surveyor, banker, developed Delaware

1732-1803, John Dickinson, Quaker, Episcopalian, lawyer, congressman, helped draft articles of confederation

1727-1819, William Samuel Johnson, Anglican Clergyman, first president of King’s College NY, great grandson of Robert Johnson who immigrated to America in 1638 to assist in founding godly commonwealth at New Haven

Mason 1755-1827, Rufus King, Episcopalian, lawyer, congressman

Mason 1741-1819, John Langdon, Congregationalist, congressman

1723-1790, William Livingston, Presbyterian, lawyer, Brigadier General, Governor NJ, congressman

Mason 1753-1816, James McHenry, Presbyterian, physician, soldier, congressman, directed est. of West Point

Mason 1745-1806, William Paterson, Presbyterian, congressman, Supreme Court justice

1746-1825, Charles Cotsworth Pinckney, Episcopalian, statesman, lawyer, congressman, minister to France

1733-1798, George Read, Episcopalian, lawyer, judge, signer of Declaration, congressman

u1735-1819, Hugh Williamson, Presbyterian Clergyman, physician, scientist, Continental Congress, congressman

16 [82]

1749-1800, William Blount, Presbyterian, planter, congressman, signed Constitution

u1744-1824, Pierce Butler, Episcopalian, wealthy planter, congressman, signed Constitution

1730-1796, Daniel Carrol, Catholic, planter, congressman, committee to define Washington, D.C., signed Constitution

u1739-1813, George Clymer, Quaker, Episcopalian, banker, signer of Declaration too, signed Constitution

Mason 1760-1824, Jonathan Dayton, Episcopalian, lawyer, congressman, signed Constitution

1741-1811, William Few, Methodist, farmer, lawyer, banker, congressman, signed Constitution

Mason u1755-1814, Nicholas Gilman, Congregationalist, captain in Revolution, congressman, signed Constitution

1748-1796, Nathaniel Gorham, Congregationalist, helped write Constitution, financier, signed Constitution

1749-1822, Jared Ingersoll, Presbyterian, lawyer, signed Constitution

1723-1790, Daniel Jenifer, Episcopalian, congressman, signed Constitution

u1744-1800, Thomas Mifflin, Quaker, Episcopalian, soldier in Revolution, Governor Pennsylvania, congressman, signed Constitution

1734-1806, Robert Morris, Episcopalian, financier of Revolution, signed Articles of Confederation, Declaration, Constitution, signed Constitution

u1757-1824, Charles Pinckney III, Episcopalian, planter, lawyer, Governor SC, congressman, signed Constitution

1737-1800, John Rutledge, Episcopalian, lawyer, state attorney general, chief justice of SC, U.S. Supreme Court, signed Constitution

Mason 1758-1802, Richard Dobbs Spaight, Episcopalian, planter, congressman, signed Constitution

Mason 1742-1798, James Wilson, Episcopalian-Deist, lawyer, Supreme Court, signed Constitution

15 [83]

u1756-1820, William Richardson Davie, Presbyterian, lawyer, planter, founder Univ. NC, minister to France, member Continental Congress did not sign Constitution

Mason 1745-1807, Oliver Ellsworth, Congregationalist, lawyer, judge, congressman, member Continental Congress did not sign Constitution

Mason 1744-1814, Eldridge Gerry, Episcopalian, signed Declaration, Articles Confederation, Governor MA, VP U.S., member Continental Congress did not sign Constitution

u1746-1788, William Churchill Houston, Presbyterian, lawyer, member Continental Congress did not sign Constitution

Mason u1757-1813, William Houstoun, Episcopalian, planter, lawyer, congressman, member Continental Congress did not sign Constitution

u1754-1829, John Lansing, Dutch Reformed, lawyer, mayor of Albany NY, Chief Justice NY, member Continental Congress did not sign Constitution

Mason 1740-1807, Alexander Martin, Episcopalian, lawyer, planter, congressman 35 years, Governor NC, member Continental Congress did not sign Constitution

1748-1826, Luther Martin, Episcopalian, lawyer, attorney general, member Continental Congress did not sign Constitution

u1746-1823, James McClung, physician, banker, religion not known but appointment arranged by Washington and Patrick Henry, member Continental Congress did not sign Constitution

u1759-1821, John Francis Mercer, Episcopalian, lawyer, Governor MD, congressman, member Continental Congress did not sign Constitution

Mason 1740-1789, William Pierce, Episcopalian, merchant, author of only character sketches of 55 constitutional delegates, member Continental Congress did not sign Constitution

Mason 1753-1813, Edmund Jennings Randolph, Episcopalian, lawyer, Mayor of Williamsburg, Governor of Continental Congress, first U.S. Attorney General, Secretary of State, member Continental Congress did not sign Constitution

1745-1819, Caleb Strong, Congregationalist, lawyer, congressman, member Continental Congress did not sign Constitution

1726-1806, George Wythe, Episcopalian, judge, law professor, congressman, signed Declaration, member Continental Congress did not sign Constitution

u1738-1801, Robert Yates, Dutch Reformed, lawyer, leader Revolution in NY, Chief Justice NY, member Continental Congress did not sign Constitution

 

I. 33 Freemason Generals in Continental Army

Top most military rank and date promoted, all Continental Army unless noted.[84]

1.      1732-1799, George Washington, Commander in Chief, 1st President

2.      1718-1790, Israel Putnam, one of first Major Generals, 1775, and only one to serve throughout the war.

3.      1738-1775, Richard Montgomery, Brigadier General 1775 whose promotion to Major General did not reach him before was killed at Quebec on 12-31-1775.

4.      1740-1795, John Sullivan, Major General 1776, Attorney General and then Governor of NH.

5.      1741-1801, Benedict Arnold, Major General 1777, deserted 1780.

6.      1736-1818, Arthur St. Clair, Major General and Commander U.S. Army 1791.

7.      1733-1810, Benjamin Lincoln, Major General 1777, Secretary of War 1781.

8.      1757-1834, Marquis de LaFayette, Major General 1777.

9.      1730-1794, Baron Von Steuben, Major General and Inspector General 1778.

10.  1737-1789, Samuel Holden Parson, Major General 1780.

11.  1750-1806, Henry Knox, Major General 1782, Commander and Chief of Army 1783, Secretary of War 1785-1794.

12.  1711-1777, David Wooster, Major General 1775 CT, Brigadier General Continental 1775.

13.  1712-1794, Joseph Frye, Major General MA militia 1775, Brigadier General Continental 1776.

14.  1736-1781, William Thompson, Brigadier General 1776.

15.  1725-1777, Hugh Mercer, Brigadier General 1776.

16.  1727-1815, John Nixon, Brigadier General 1776.

17.  1733-1812, James Clinton, Brigadier General 1776.

18.  1733-1796, William Maxwell, Brigadier General 1776.

19.  1732-1797, John Glover, Brigadier General 1777, whose men took Washington across the Delaware on that eventful Christmas night in 1776 and whose men took Washington’s men off Long Island after a defeat.

20.  1744-1808, John Paterson, Brevet Major General 1783.

21.  1748-1789, James Mitchell Varnum, Brigadier General 1777, Major General RI militia.

22.  1734-1780, William Woodford, Brigadier General 1777.

23.  1746-1807, John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg, Major General 1783.

24.  1734-1793, George Weedon, Brigadier General 1777.

25.  1744-1802, Edward Hand, Brigadier General 1777, Adjutant General 1781, Brevet Major General 1783, Major General 1798.

26.  1728-1822, John Stark, Brigadier General 1777.

27.  1733-1785, Jethro Sumner, Brigadier General 1779.

28.  17??-1781, James Hogun, Major General GA militia 1776, Brigadier General Continental 1779.

29.  1742-1792, Mordeci Gist, Brigadier General 1779.

30.  1749-1794, Otho Holland Williams, Brigadier General 1782.

31.  1741-1783, John Greaton, Brigadier General 1783.

32.  1738-1824, Rufus Putnam, Brigadier General 1783.

33.  1737-1807, Elias Dayton, Brigadier General 1783.

34.   

J. 85 More Freemason Founding Fathers Not in Barton or LeHaye

NOTE: we could have included many more; I just got tired—a few are above too.[85]

1.      Mason 1703-1773, John Entick, Clergyman, Church of England and school master, remembered for his edition of Book of Constitutions 1756 of Freemasonry, omitting marred versions of Anderson’s second edition of 1738; he was grand steward in 1755 and junior grand warden in 1758; his Latin dictionary was used for many years in schools.

2.      Mason 1711-1794, Joseph Frye, General in Revolutionary War, was a colonel when Montcalm captured Fort William Henry in 1757, appointed major general by Mass. Provincial congress in June of 1775, made Brigadier General by Continental Congress on 1-10-1776, was a member of Massachusetts Lodge and was general secretary.

3.      Mason 1714-1786, Charles Humphreys, member Continental Congress 1774-1776, Quaker who opposed war, voted for Declaration of Independence, member Provincial Congress 1764-1774.

4.      Mason 1718-1790, Israel Putnam, Lt. Colonel at Lexington Alarm, April 1775, first of four Major General appointed 1775 and only one to serve throughout war.

5.      Mason 1721-1775, Peyton Randolph, member first Continental Congress & first president of congress, King’s attorney in VA 1748, speaker of House of Bergesses 1766 and member 1764-1775.

6.      Mason 1722-1725, Samuel Fraunces, revolutionary tavernkeeper and patriot, a West Indian Negro who kept Fraunces Tavern in New York City 1762-65 and 1770-89, and from 1789-94 was household steward to George Washington, member of the Holland Lodge No. 8, New York City.

7.      Mason 1723-1781, Cornelius Harnett, Town Commissioner, New Hanover, Chairman Sons of Liberty NC, member Continental Congress 1777-1780, governor of NC, hailed as “Samuel Adams of North Carolina,” captured by British in NC 1781 and died as prisoner.[86]

8.      Mason 1725-1777, Hugh Mercer, studied medicine Marichall College, Aberdeen, to Philadelphia 1747 to practice medicine, Brigadier General Continental Army 1776, died from wounds at Princeton.

9.      Mason 1727-1815, John Nixon, helped in siege of Louisbourg 1745, Capt. provincial troups under General Abercrombie at Ticonderoga, Capt. Minute Men at Lexington, April 19, 1775, Brigadier General Continental Army 1776, member of Congregational Church for many years.

10.  Mason 1727-1795, Daniel Roberdeau, entered America early age, settled Philadelphia, member Continental Congress 1777-1779, Brigadier General PN militia and first of his rank, manager of Philadelphia Hospital.

11.  Mason 1728-1822, John Stark, Colonel NH 1775, Brevet Major General 1783.

12.  Mason 1728-1806, Horatio Gates, Major General of Continental Army in American Revolution, in 1772 took up land at invitation of Washington and settled down in Virginia, when Revolution broke out made Brigadier General in July 1775 and next year Major General, remained loyal to Washington in spite of association with Benedict Arnold, probably member of Lodge at Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, where active lodges were between 1738-1755; on 12-18-1778 the Grand Lodge of MA invited him and other Masons to dine and feast for St. John’s Day.

13.  Mason 1729-1797, Edmund Burke, British statesman favoring cause of colonies, Protestant Father and Catholic Mother, high position in Whigs, advocated abolition of slavery, thought to be a member of Jerusalem Lodge No. 44, Clerkenwell, London, sometimes called “Burke’s Lodge”; he championed John Wilkes when imprisoned for libel and wrote pamphlet in defense and members of Jerusalem Lodge went to the prison and made Wilkes a Mason in King’s Bench Prison on March 3, 1769.[87]

14.  Mason 1729-1813, William Franklin, son of Benjamin Franklin, last royal Governor of NJ under the British, uncertain as to which Lodge, he was a member of either St. John’s No. 1 or the Tun Tavern Lodge, he was grand secretary of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania 1755, was with his father when he visited the Grand Lodge of England.

15.  Mason 1730-1790, Jethro Sumner, Brig. Gen. Revolution, 1760 paymaster for provincial troops in NC, Royal White Hart Lodge No. 2, Helifax.

16.  Mason 1730-1730, Joseph Hewes, member first & second Continental Congresses, 1774-77, 1779, prominent legislator, member of “Committee on the Marine and was in effect first Secretary of Navy.”[88]

17.  Mason 17??-1781, James Hogun, Major GA militia, Brigadier General Continental Army, taken prisoner at Charleston and died prisoner, member assemble in Halifax

18.  Mason 1730-1791, William Bernet, member of Constitutional Convention in 1776, pioneer physician, when Grand Lodge of New Jersey was charted Nova Caesarea Lodge No. 10, Cincittati, on Sept. 8, 1791, he was named its first master.

19.  Mason 1730-1797, Thomas Chittenden, first Governor of Vermont, member of Vermont Lodge (now Windsor No. 18), was charter master of Dorchester Lodge of Vergennes, chartered in 1791 by the Grand Lodge of Canada, now No. 1 under the Grand Lodge of Vermont.

20.  Mason 1730-1785, William Whipple, sailor in slave trade, but abandoned it and liberated his slaves, member of second Continental Congress, 1775-1776 & 1778, Brigadier General NH militia, member Provincial Congress Exeter 1775, member state assembly 1780-1784, financial Receiver for NH 1782-1784.

21.  Mason 1732-1800, John Blair, delegate to Constitutional Convention 1787, one of first associate justices of Supreme Court, chief justice Virginia.

22.  Mason 1732-1797, John Glover, Brigadier General Continental Army, took Washington men across Delware that eventful Christmas night in 1776, congressman in House.

23.  Mason 1733-1812, James Clinton, served in French and Indian War, Brigadier General in Continental Army, Brevet Major General 1783, father of DeWitt Clinton who became Governor of NY and Grand Master of Masons in NY.

24.  Mason 1733-1798, William Maxwell, French and Indian War, Brigadier General Continental Army 1776, served with Army at Valley Forge winter 1777-1778, no likeness of him found.

25.  Mason 1733-1785, Jethro Sumner, Brigadier General Continental Army 1779, President of NC Society of Cincinnati.[89]

26.  Mason 1733-1816, Samuel Johnston, Gov. of NC, congressman, Royal Edwin Lodge No. 5, Unanimity Lodge No. 7, first Grand Master of Grand Lodge of NC, 1787-92.

27.  Mason 1734-1780, William Woodford, Brigadier General Continental Army 1777, wounded at Brandywine, marched troops 500 miles in 28 days to Charleston, died in captivity 1780; related to Washington by marriage and “one of the Commander in Chief’s most trusted and confidential generals.”[90]

28.  Mason 1734-1824, William Fleming, American patriot and jurist, member of Virginia conventions 1775-76, Continental Conventions 1779-81, lodge not known, but attended sessions of Grand Lodge of Virginia Oct. 1791.

29.  Mason 1734-1793, George Weedon, Lt. Colonel VA, Brigadier General Continental Army 1777, one of original member Society of Cincinnati & president 1783 & 1786.

30.  Mason 1735-1799, Joseph Cilley, first Major General of New Hampshire militia, made master Mason on June 15, 1775, in St. John’s Lodge No. 1, Portsmouth, NH.

31.  Mason 1736-1781, William Thompson, Brig. Gen. Revolution, helped raise first troops on demand of Continental Congress, relieved Gen. Charles Lee of command in NY, made Mason in Philadelphia Lodge No. 2 with two other generals.

32.  Mason 1736-1818, Arthur St. Clair, studied medicine at Univ. Edinburgh under John Hunter, came to America 1759, Colonel in PN militia, Major General and Commander of US Army, member Continental Congress 1785-1787 & presiden 1787

33.  Mason 1737-1818, Jonas Fay, American patriot, with two member of Vermont Lodge No. 18 (Ira Allen and Thomas Chittenden) led the fight that est. Vermont as the 14th state, made Freemason in Master’s Lodge No. 5, Albany, NY, member of convention in Jan. 1777 that made Vermont a state.

34.  Mason 17??-1799, John Fitzgerald, Lt. Colonel and Aide-de-Camp to Washington, close friend of Washington, mayor of Alexandria, VA, helped found Catholic church there.

35.  Mason 1737-1807, Elias Dayton, Brigadier General, Continental Army, trustee of Presbyterian Church in Elizabethtown, congressman in NJ legislature.

36.  Mason 1737-1789, Samuel Holden Parsons, King’s attorney 1773, Colonel at Lexington Alarm, April 1775, Major General 1780, president of CT Society of Cincinnati 1784.

37.  Mason 1738-1775, Richard Montgomery, British officer in Halifax 1757, became Brigadier General Continental Army 1775, member of first Provincial Convention, NY, 1775.

38.  Mason 1738-1779, Edward Biddle, pre-revolutionary leader, member Continental Congress 1774-75, 1778, 1779, member state assembly 1767-1775, Speaker 1774.

39.  Mason 1738-1810, John Frost, Brigadier General in American Revolution, was Lt. Colonel at siege of Boston, won several engagements, member of St. Andrews Lodge, Boston, MA.

40.  Mason 1740-1879, John Sullivan, Major General in Revolution, Gov. NH, first Grand Master of Grand Lodge of NH, POW, Master of St. John’s Lodge.

41.  Mason 1741-1783, John Greaton, Brigadier General Continental Army.

42.  Mason 1741-1780, William Palfrey, Major & Aide-de-Camp to General Lee and to Washington, Paymaster General 1776, appointed US Consul to France 1780, sailed and lost at sea.

43.  Mason 1741-1804, George Walton, lawyer Savannah, member second Continental Congress 1776-1781, US Senator 1795, twice governor of GA, first judge of Superior Courts of Eastern Judicial district

44.  Mason 1742-1814, Simon Spalding, soldier, general in PA militia, capt. in Revolution, Rural Amith Lodge No. 179.

45.  Mason 1743-1788, Samuel Elbert, Revolutionary Brigadier General, Governor of Georgia, last grand master of Georgia to be appointed by the United Grand Lodge of England, 1774 appointed Capt. grenadier company, Lt. Colonel in 1776, member of Solomon Lodge No. 1, Savannah.

46.  Mason 1743-1798, John Fitch, inventor of steam boat, Lodge No. 25 of Bristol, PA, 1-4-1785.

47.  Mason 1744-1809, John Walker, Lt. Colonel & Aide-de-Camp for Washington, appointed Senator to fill after death of William Grayson.

48.  Mason 1744-1802, Edward Hand, Major General of United States, appointed by Washington Ispector of Revenue District PN, Lay Deputry of Diocesan Convention of Episcopal Church in Philadelphia, President of PN Society of the Cincinnati, 1799.

49.  Mason 1744-1808, John Paterson, Yale lawyer, Colonel in MA regiment, Brevet Major General 1783, practiced law in Lenox, MA, after war, member NY state legislature, State Constitutional Convention 1801, monument in Lenox to him.

50.  Mason 1745-1799, William Dawes, merchant, tanner, one of famous midnight riders who road with Paul Revere 1775, who warned John Hancock and John Adams in time to save them; known to be a Mason, but not proof.

51.  Mason 1745-1806, William Paterson, emigrated to colonies 1747, elected delegate to 1787 Continental Congress but could not serve as he was attorney general NJ, US Senate 1789, resigned to become governor of NJ, Assoc. Justice to US Supreme Court 1793 to death.

52.  Mason 1747-1806, Richard Cary, Lt. Colonel and Aide-de-Camp to Washington; Washington said he “was the greatest gentleman in the American Army.”[91]

53.  Mason 1748-1789, James Mitchell Varnum, lawyer, colonel RI regiment, Major General RI Militia, President of RI Society of Cincinnati 1786.

54.  Mason 1749-1794, Otho Holland Williams, Major in Stephenson’s Maryland and Virginia Rifle Regiment, Brigadier General Continental Army 1782, appointed Collector of Customs at Baltimore, president of MD Society of Cincinnati 1792.

55.  Mason 1749-1831, Isaiah Thomas, patriot and printer, publisher of Massachusetts Spy, published attacks on British, joined Paul Revere, was first printer to use music type, published Farmer’s Museum, Printed most of the Bibles and school books used in the country, not known where made a Mason, but became Master of Trinity Lodge of Lancaster MA, founding member of Morning Star Lodge of Worcester MA, was Senior Grand Warden of Grand Lodge of MA, and Grand Master of Grand Lodge MA 1803-05, and help lay cornerstone for Bunker Hill Monument with Lafayette in a procession that was more than a mile long, with 5,000 dining together for this occasion.

56.  Mason 1750-1806, Henry Knox, Major General 1782, Comander in Chief of Army 1783, first Secretary of War, first secretary-general of Society of the Cincinnati 1783-1799 & VP 1805.

57.  Mason 1752-1818, George Rogers Clark, famous Brigadier General in American Revolution, received approval of Governor Patrick Henry for expedition into territory now known as Illinois, older brother of William Clark of famed Lewis and Clark expedition (also a Mason), his leg was amputated, Abraham Lodge No. 8, Louisville, buried with Masonic funeral.

58.  Mason 1752-1825, John Brooks, Governor MA, re-elected 7 years in succession, American Union Lodge and Washington Lodge No. 10.

59.  Mason 1752-1818, David Humphreys, Lt. Colonel & Aide-de-Camp to Washington, negotiated treaties, first US minster to Portugal, then minister to Spain 1796, became horse breeder

60.  Mason 1753-1799, Henry Tazell, Senator VA, delegate to Constitutional Convention 1775-1776, Father senator and Gov. VA, Williamsburg Lodge No. 6.

61.  Mason 1754-1848, Henry Burbeck, founder of West Point, senior warden of St. John’s Provincial Grand Lodge in Boston and signed warrant for American Union Lodge, at battles of Brandywine, Germantown, and wintered at Valley Forge, commanded the troops that took over New York from British on Nov. 25, 1783; in 1792 est. school that would become West Point, and when Corp of Engineers was created in 1801 he was its first chief.

62.  Mason 1755-1843, Ebenezer Mattoon, Officer in Revolution, Major General in War of 1812, congressman, Pacific Lodge, Amherst, MA, master 1818-1819.

63.  Mason 1755-1814, Nicholas Gilman, member Continental Congress 1786-1788, member of first four congresses, presidential elector 1793 & 1797, US senator NH.

64.  Mason 1756-1743, Hodijah Baylies, Lt. Colonel and Aide-de-Camp to Washington

65.  Mason 1757-1796, Josep P. E. Capelle, surgeon in American Revolution, came to America with Count Rochambeau, later served with Lafayette as staff surgeon, one of incorporators of Delaware State Medical School, raised master Mason on Lodge No. 14 at Wilmington on Aug. 21, 1783, and served as master in 1786 and again in 1792, treasure from 1788-1791, on Aug.,6, 1789, one of the first group of Delaware Masons to receive Royal Arch Degree.

66.  Mason 1757-1806, James Jackson, Brigadier General 1788, Governor of GA, killed Lt. Gov. Wells in duel, Solomons Lodge No. 1.

67.  Mason 1759-1796, Robert Burns, Scottish national poet, considered a poetic genius, member St. David’s Lodge No. 174, raised Oct. 1, 1781, member of several other Lodges, and wrote several Masonic poems, including “Farewell to the Brethren of St. James Lodge, Tarbolton” and “The Freemasons’ Apron”.

68.  Mason 1759-1820, Josiah Bartlett, physician, grand master of the Grand Lodge of MA, member of Union Lodge at Danbury, CT (now No. 40), April 13, 1780, raised on May 2, 1780, charter member of King Solomon’s Lodge, Charleston, MA, Sept. 1783; Bartlett followed Paul Revere as Grand Master of MA 1798, 1799, 1810.

69.  Mason 1759-1841, Jonathan Gage, ship builder who sloop Polly was stolen by British, congressman in Massachusetts, master of St. Peter’s Lodge in Newburyport in 1791, help organize the General Grand Chapter, Royal Arch Masons, in 1798 was first grand treasure of Grand Chapter in Massachusetts.

70.  Mason 1760-1823, Jesse Franklin, Governor and U.S. Senator from NC, 12-23-1793, became a member of Liberty Lodge No. 45, Wilkesborough, NC.

71.  Mason 1762-1832, Samuel Strong, General in War 1812, raised troops and hastened to relief of garrison at Plattsburg, NY, received formal thanks from VT and NY, Dorchester Lodge No. 1, Vergennes.

72.  Mason 1762-18??, Elisha Cullen Dick, one of three doctors who attend George Washington in his last illness, made a Mason in Lodge No. 2, Philadelphia in 1779, one of the organizers of Alexander Lodge No. 39, VA (later Alexandria-Washington Lodge No. 22), and senior warden 1783, master of Lodge 22 in 1793 at the laying of the cornerstone of the U.S. Capitol.

73.  Mason 1764-1812, Jaun Jose Castelli, Argentine patriot, lawyer, and politician of indomitable courage, member of Lautaro Lodge.

74.  Mason 1765-1826, Thomas Todd, Justice U. S. Supreme Court, 1807-1826, part of KY statehood, Lodge No. 24 of VA, became charter member of Lexington Lodge No. 1, Lexington, KY.

75.  Mason 1769-1841, Martin Chittenden, son of Thomas Chittenden, Governor of Vermont 1813-1814, graduate of Dartmouth 1789, member of Washington Lodge No. 7, Burlington, VT, one of petitioners for new Lodge named Chittenden at Williston, VT, in honor of his father.

76.  Mason 1770-1838, William Clark of famed Lewis and Clark expedition to Northwest Territory by appointed from President Jefferson in 1804, younger brother of George Rogers Clark, made superintendent of Indian affairs by President Monroe at St. Louis and kept position until death in 1838; member of St. Louis Lodge No. 111 under Pennsylvania charter, and buried with Masonic honors.

77.  Mason 1773-1828, John Geddes, Governor of SC 1818-20, congressman, Brigadier General, past master of St. John’s Lodge No. 13, Charleston, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of South Carolina in 1826.

78.  Mason 1774-1834, Rufus Easton, first postmaster West of the Mississippi River, first attorney general of MO, entered through Roman Lodge No. 82 of NY and helped organize Western Star Lodge No. 107, Kaskaskia, IL, when St. Louis Lodge No. 111 was organized he was a charter member.

79.  Mason 1774-1860, Littleton W. Tazewell, Gov. VA, congressman, son of Henry Tazewell, Naphtali Lodge No. 56.

80.  Mason 1777-1849, Edmund P. Gaines, Major General in War of 1812, arrested Aaron Burr, member of Phoenix Lodge No. 8, Fayetteville, NC.

81.  Mason 1781-1842, Newton Cannon, Governor of TN, 1735-1839, congressman, Cumberland Lodge No. 8 and was present when Grand Lodge of Tennessee was called in 1825.

82.  Mason 1782-1867, Henry Dodge, General and Indian fighter, U.S. Senator then Governor of Wisconsin, 12-6-1806 initiated into Western Star Lodge 107, Kaskaskia, IL, later affliated with Louisiana Lodge No. 109 (Missouri’s first Lodge) at St. Genevieve, MO, served as master three years, installing office at institution of Unity Lodge No. 6, Jackson, MO.

83.  Mason 1784-1854, William P. Duval, Governor of Territory of Florida 1822-1834 by President Monroe, served in War of 1812, raised 8-13-1804 in Washington Lodge No. 6, Bardstown, KY, served senior warden in 1816.

84.  Mason 1795-1858, John P. Gaines, Governor of Oregon Territory 1850-53, congressman, member of Multnomah Lodge No. 1, Oregon City, OR.

85.  Mason 1800-1836, James W. Fannin, Texas patriot and pioneer, Capt. of Texas forces, 1835 defeated larger Mexican army near Bexar, General Houston made him colonel then inspector general, executed by General Santa Anna with 357 other 3-27-1836, was senior deacon to Holland Lodge No. 36, LA, when it was organized, later to become Holland No. 1 of Texas.

 

Obviously, something is amiss in the anti-Mason histories, even unpatriotically malicious.

 


 

Appendix 6.
E-Mails to Paige Patterson & SBC Experts

Some of the information above is based upon these e-mails, and I placed them on-line to save space for more important material, the book already too large. By and large, they expressed themselves well. Bill Gordon hid. Tal Davis deferred to Bill Gordon’s expertise. Paige Patterson avoided substance. I, as a Southern Baptist, could not get a simple answer to clear questions. Moreover, Paige Patterson views secrets and a fraternity founded upon virtues and agreement as childish. Are secrets and virtue childish? Or did Patterson just not think about what he was saying? Or did not know what he was saying? Sadly, there are not a lot of options left.

I did say from the start that I was chronicling my journey as I went—my own foibles, too. In the first version of the book, I included them here.

1. Maness Initial E-Mail to Bill Gordon — 9-9-04, 10:20 AM

2. Maness Initial E-Mail to Tal Davis — 9-9-04, 8 PM

3. Tal Davis 1st and Only E-mail Response — 9-13-04, 9 AM

4. Bill Gordon’s E-mail Agency Response — 9-13-04, 3 PM

4—Interjection

5. Maness 1st Follow-up Plea to Tal Davis — 9-14-04, 8 AM

6. Maness 2nd Follow-up Plea to Tal Davis — 9-14-04, 6 PM

7. Paige Patterson e-mail to Maness — 9-30-04, 4 PM

8. Maness Response to Patterson — 10-01-4, 6 PM

9. Patterson Response to Maness — 10-11-4, 10:49 AM

10. Maness Response to Patterson — 10-12-4, 6:30 AM

11. Maness 1st Follow-up to Patterson — 11-29-04, 9:23 AM

12. Patterson Response to Maness — 11-29-04, 5:41 PM

13. Maness Response to Patterson — 11-30-04, 6:06 AM

14. Patterson Response – End – to Maness — 11-30-04, 6:03 PM

In the end, according to Patterson, a defense of Freemasonry is a defense of indefensible, and so character truly does not count. Character Counting truly needs more light today, much more light.

See the full text at
www.PreciousHeart.net/Patterson_E-Mails.htm  

 

 

Appendix 7.
Gary Leazer’s Fundamentalism & Freemasonry

 

Gary Leazer’s Fundamentalism and Freemasonry is an important contribution to the history of SBC studies, even crucial, and especially with reference to James L. Holly’s muffin criticisms.[92] Leazer sets the stage and does a good job summarizing the rise of fundamentalism in general and in the SBC—the real cause of the anti-Mason fomentations. Leazer’s first four chapters are worth the price of his book alone on Fundamentalism. 

Bill Gordon and Tal Davis were secretive and not interested in history, and they were interested in occulting history. The SBC Interfaith Witness Department did not want to share their reasons for not sharing even the smallest piece of history, even the date of Gordon’s little Closer Look. Another tell-tale sign of a truly secret society—no accountability to its own constituency.

James L. Holly profusely attacked Freemasonry and Gary Leazer, especially in his volume III. With both books on the table, Leazer’s lean corrections and clarifications climb up and cast a shadow upon Holly’s heated stretching of his own Frankenstein. Gary Leazer is clearly more credible and thorough. In the latter chapters, Gary Leazer clearly documents many misrepresentations and unfair inflations in several anti-Mason books and reveals how HMB President Larry Lewis changed and deleted several items in Leazer’s study of Freemasonry.

Gary Leazer does document. The SBC’s final stance was a respect for “conscience.” Yet that is not all. Leazer had to walk carefully like few before him. Even though Leazer was a non-Mason at the time of the study, Larry Lewis was concerned about “damage control”[93]: Larry Lewis had received a letter that Leazer had written to a SBC Freemason friend, and James L. Holly fomented distrust after he too had seen the letter. Copies of that letter spread like a busted bee hive. Leazer’s ability to talk to Freemasons as fellow Southern Baptists was crippled by Larry Lewis’ fears and Holly’s agitations. Listen to Leazer’s side of the story.

[SBC HMB President Larry Lewis] Lewis was upset that I had encouraged Masons to attend the Southern Baptist Convention in Houston in June [1993] to vote their conscience. A number of Masons had written asking how they could help with the study…. if they felt strongly about the matter, they could attend the convention as messengers elected by their churches and vote when the issue came up for discussion. While I was repeatedly criticized for this action, others regularly encouraged people to attend the convention and vote for particular candidates.[94]

Gary Leazer noted Paige Patterson and Paul Pressler’s well-known and sometimes secret caucusing for the previous 15 years, and Leazer is straight on target with concerns and implied surprise over the attacks on his own vote-your-conscience encouragements. As an SBC employee, the current climate would not allow Gary Leazer to say “vote your conscience” to anyone but those who fully supported the takeover cabal.

[SBC HMB President Larry Lewis] Lewis was especially upset that I had allowed two Masons, Southern Baptist Abner McCall, president emeritus of Baylor University, and Disciples of Christ layperson Jim Tresner, editor of The Oklahoma Mason, to read advance copies of the study. [Gary Leazer’s concern was his own accuracy, as a non-Mason, so he consulted them to] check that carefully. I know Masons will not agree with all of my report but believe it to be fair and objective.[95]

Leazer had written McCall and Tresner in January of 1993 and maintained editorial control over the study until he had submitted the Freemasonry study to Larry Lewis on January 22, 1993. In February, Leazer was reprimanded for his letter to his Freemason friend D. L. Talbert; the letter that had kicked James L. Holly into a beehive action of his own.

That was the beginning of the end of Leazer’s SBC service as Holly vigorously pursued Leazer and harassed. Holly ruined Leazer’s SBC career, and Holly documented that ruination in his volume III, which devotes nearly 200 pages of his persecution of Leazer and Holly’s own dissatisfaction with the SBC. Strangely cooperative—though at odds with each other—the coldness of the SBC officials and apparent lack of concern for a truly objective report brims over in both Leazer’s and Holly’s words. Both anti-Mason James Holly and (then neutral) SBC researcher Gary Leazer together document the HMB’s determination to stir the negative caldron.

In Holly’s volume III, Holly continuously pummels Leazer for an attempt to contact a Freemason of good reputation and authority about an SBC study of Freemasonry compatibility with the SBC. And Holly pummels the SBC Interfaith Witness Department for not slamming Freemasonry more than they did. Moreover, as we have seen in appendix 4 (and in the longer on-line version), Holly misrepresents and sloppily constructs his own Frankenstein.

Between Leazer’s and Holly’s documents, the SBC leaders were careless, paranoid, and determined to support the anti-Mason Frankenstein as well as the SBC disrespect for character counting. The SBC leaders had to support their Frankenstein; perhaps that was the secret order of Paige Patterson, but most likely just acting under the political pressure and vocal dislikes of Patterson. Probably not under any orders from Patterson, but certainly aware of Patterson’s determined dislikes—there was no fear of sloppy work.

Regrettably, Gary Leazer even acquiesced to President Larry Lewis’ request for a signed release for letters in Leazer’s own home. Leazer’s documentation indicates how much more trust Leazer had in Lewis than Lewis had in Leazer before Lewis’ final crushing. Leazer exhibited far more of a Christian spirit than was exhibited to him. Three boxes of 2,300 letters were removed from Leazer’s office, and then Lewis’ executive vice president “rode with me [Leazer] while Sunderland followed in his car” to Leazer’s own home and retrieved another box of correspondence.[96]

What does that sound like to you? Gestapo secret hush-hush nonsense. Where are those letters and documents secreted from Leazer’s home today? Where are they? Ten years later, they may not mean much to the larger history, and the smallness of and administrative fringe existence of the Interfaith Witness will never merit a true history. But the SBC Gestapo-like tactics are the example of the evil accused of Freemasonry. What kind of Christian character does that kind of thing? Who is so bent on cover-up that they would sequester letters from fellow Southern Baptists? We do not believe the SBC was sophisticated enough to be making a kind of black-list for Gestapo-like censure. But it was truly a Gestapo-like search and seizure. If they had had the legal machinery of the state behind them, what would have happened to Gary Leazer? In Germany and Russia not too long ago … we fear to say. Did they act within the law? Sure they did, but not in the spirit of Christ by any means. And they are still hiding.

What is clear from James L. Holly’s volume III is that Holly manically pursued Leazer with a force that few could stand—not even the HMB President Larry Lewis. Holly even slices at Lewis in his volume III. Holly documents how he himself would not settle for anything but utter condemnation for Freemasonry no matter what the evidence, no matter what the history, even if that meant twisting the evidence and falsely representing the evidence. It is clear that character does not count to Holly in his volume III.

After all of that, Gary Leazer provides a most significant piece of documentation for the psychology behind Holly’s hot pursuit.

[James L. Holly] is quoted by the Associated Baptist Press as saying that he blames Masons for the fact his father, a Mason, rejects Christianity.” Holly’s father is a member of the Episcopal Church.[97]

Holly can be merciless, as he said:

Every Mason in Louisiana, including this writer’s father and father-in-law, has a copy of this Monitor in his home. These quotes alone are sufficient to warn the man of God to flee the Lodge. To say that there is no false religion is to say that there is no true religion either.[98]

Hold on here! Look at Holly’s theoretical source material for that severe judgment—these three quotes.

“Let there be light.”—Gen. 1:3

“There never was a false god, nor was there ever a really false religion, unless you call a child a false man.”—Max Muller

“Every age has had a religion suited to its capacity.”—Albert Pike

Is that all? Holly’s three quotes do not at all merit Holly’s condemning charge, “flee the Lodge,” by any stretch of logic or good character reference.[99] But what kind of statement is this about Holly’s own family? “Let there be light” too? Holly’s clear condemnation depends on only one quote from Max Muller, and Holly’s own father and father-in-law come under Holly’s own condemnation. Muller’s Universalism does not speak of all of Freemasonry, not any more than Occultist Manly P. Hall’s. Certainly there are false gods, biblically speaking. Did Holly have the gumption to ask his father or father-in-law? I asked Holly about that, but he did not respond to me. Yet—regarding Muller and whatever his meaning—Has there ever been a time under heaven in which the biblical God was not present even to the most heathen and ungodly? Who is Max Muller? There is not a reference anywhere that I could find in Holly’s three volumes to discover who Muller is.[100] Yet Holly uses that to slice his own father’s and father-in-law’s integrity and—again—all of Freemasonry.

Feel the pain of persecution weighing down upon Gary Leazer. Why in the world would anyone have to make statements like Leazer makes here: “It is common for scholars to send manuscripts to others to critique” and “Any scholar will consider all sources for his research”?[101] Those statements are so appropriately sad. Leazer tells us the rest of the story, documents how President Larry Lewis edited the final report, and then Leazer closes out his book with a couple of chapters correcting and clarifying James L. Holly’s volumes.

James L. Holly defies reason—Frankenstein.

As we know today, I could not get a copy of Lewis’ edited version of the 75-page document—it was deep-sixed, Bill Gordon said. It was only later that I came across Leazer’s fine book. In that light, it is no wonder that Bill Gordon gets scared when I attempted in 2004 to get to the bottom of his sloppy excursions in his Closer Look. Gordon would not have lasted as long if they had been after him. One thing is as clear as a Texas summer sky—in all of the hullabaloo caused by Lewis and Holly that even Holly himself documents, Gary Leazer is not sloppy and does not make the profound errors that Bill Gordon makes—not in the least. Bill Gordon should be afraid, if the new management is concerned about integrity.

Furthermore—hear ye, hear ye—do note what we have documented about Bill Gordon already. This is extremely important, even frightening. Inside of three lights, there walks a dark figure: (1) in the light of our 24 Franken-Bones on Gordon above, (2) in the light of Leazer’s history, and (3) in the light of how Leazer’s history is shamelessly verified and augmented in Holly’s own history—therein, in those three lights there lurks a dark figure, a SBC exclusive Frankenstein. Freemasonry was not going to get a fair shake from the start.

The persecution of Gary Leazer is vividly and viciously documented by the inflamed anti-Mason James L. Holly, and then HMB President Larry Lewis makes many revisions of Leazer’s study. Look at all of that, then notice that the small report to the 1993 SBC still—still—left the issue of Freemasonry up to the conscience of the individual Southern Baptist. Here comes another dark and mysterious figure. Sometime after June of 1993, at an undated secret time, Bill Gordon writes his Closer Look at Freemasonry and deletes “conscience” altogether, and then in his Comparison Chart removed all vestiges of good. Frankenstein lives.

Gordon’s work is today supported by Tal Davis, and implicitly by Paige Patterson. So the official position of the SBC on Freemasonry has now changed without the permission of the SBC and by permission of the SBC elite secret fraternity! What evil has now descended upon the SBC that ten legions of legends—millions of Southern Baptists too—can be so misrepresented? What evil has now descended where the official position of the SBC can be changed without permission from the SBC? What evil has come when an SBC employee—Gary Leazer—is hounded for encouraging the voting of conscience? What evil has now descended upon the SBC when “conscience” can be deleted—by a low level lackey like Bill Gordon—from such a seminal report with not even a slap on the hand?

In the land of honor and character, Bill Gordon should be afraid. Gordon’s work is not only an embarrassment, but malignantly deceptive to boot. And if Paige Patterson is just half the scholar many believe him to be, he should step out of his protected bunker and make a substantial offering of his own. Or apologize for his collusion. But all Patterson does is talk and hope that history and character does not catch him. Hiding history is not good for anyone in this context.

Gary Leazer’s unofficial prophecy is coming true in Bill Gordon’s sly and surreptitious and shamefully weak offerings and in Paige Patterson’s talk. In his conclusion, Leazer wisely warned.

If the Southern Baptist Convention adopts an anti-Masonic position, the issue will begin to tear apart local churches as they debate how to respond to the decision of the Convention. The end result would be devastating to churches, families, individuals, and the Kingdom of God.[102]

Yet, Leazer was—again—just a little too generous, continuing to believe the best and hope for the best. It would be great if the SBC had a say in its own official position. For Bill Gordon has already taken the SBC to the anti-Mason position and deleted “conscience” too—all without the SBC’s permission.

Just who is being duped and who is being duplicitous here? Gary Leazer is asked to resign for wanting SBC members to vote their conscience on Freemasonry and his own trying to get real SBC Freemason experts’ input. Yet Bill Gordon misrepresents, deletes “conscience,” and gets supports from his boss and from Paige Patterson on his changing of the official SBC position without the SBC approval! For ten years now!

Who is being duped here? Frankenstein needs to go back to the graveyard.

Bill Gordon ought to be afraid—in the land of honor and on the plains of life where character counts—except that he is secretly protected.

See this on-line at
www.PreciousHeart.net/Leazer.htm  

 


 

Appendix 8.
Teeny-Tiny Applications of 8 Groups of 8 Proofs

 

I used teeny tiny many times, perhaps over the top. Teeny Tiny was used in reference to Bill Gordon’s use of only two authors and use of so few references in his Closer Look and fewer still in his Comparison Chart. By the largest Protestant denomination in the world with millions of Freemasons, it is still smaller than a standard comic book. Everything about its rationale was teeny tiny. In 12 pages and 8 incompatibilities from two (2) sources authors! … Shoot fire! We added 8 clear categories of anti-Masons who have published, and then a 1/2 category where powerbrokers mouth junk with a comical hush-hush sweet darling. The unpublished powerbroker’s hush-hush is prostitution of their own character and reputation to dupe the innocent.

Did I use teeny tiny too many times? Some anti-Masons will certainly think so, but they never read big books anyway. I thought several times about using teeny tiny only a tiny number of times. Yet it applied so well so many times to both the technical vivisection and the rhetorical lampoon. We had lots of fun.

I thought about trying to sift and distill all of the categories into which the uses of teeny tiny apply, even attempting an analysis of uses of teeny tiny—called, perhaps, the Teeny Tiny Analysis, or some other pun. The uses of teeny tiny indicate the colorful array of applications of teeny tiny in Gordon’s squeaky Closer Look. So, without actually analyzing, imagine with me, if you will, what such would look like.

First, there would be a category of teeny tiny referents focusing upon the Closer Look task itself. Teeny tiny applies to several areas: (1) to the 300-year-old history of speculative Freemasonry (not even given a sentence by Gordon), (2) to Freemasonry’s multitude of intercontinental authors and champions (left out by Gordon), (3) to many anti-Mason precedents (not referenced one time by Gordon), (4) to the character of legions of legends, (5) to the place of Freemasonry in the founding of the United States of America itself. Wow—how teeny tiny can one get? Teeny tiny. Bill Gordon had the resources of the largest Protestant denomination in the history of the world—the mighty SBC. And (6) Gordon’s 8 inflations of the 8 incapabilities are huge inflations with teeny tiny supports, which make his occulting and deletions of all the good from the 1993 Original a (7) teeny tiny bloating of his own pretense to honor. His deletion of conscience from the 1993 Original is a (8) tinier pretense to fidelity to SBC honor. Those eight (8) applications of teeny tiny alone slap silly the eight (8) SBC incompatibilities, but those are not all of the beatings Frankenstein absorbs.

In all, what is Frankenstein’s best shot? What leg does he have left to stand upon? Does Frankenstein have one single decent, clear, and irrefutable leg to stand upon?

In the light of our 24 Franken-Bones (yeah—that’s 3 x 8), 8 chapters of detail on Frankenstein, 8 chapters on Freemasonry honor, 8 huge wedges of credibility, 8 pictures illustrating, 8 charts listing, 8 appendices complementing, 8 categories of bibliography representing 1,888+ authors in 3,000+ works, and 888 endnotes in teeny tiny type in 40 pages referencing—okey dokey, that’s a load, with 8,000+ paragraphs too. What a hoot!

 

8 chapters on Frankenstein

8 chapters on Freemasonry

8 wedges between them

8 pictures illustrating

8 charts a listing

8 appendixes of support

8 categories of bibliography

8 categories of tiny applications

Then add these 24 Franken-Bones (3 x 8)

That is 8 groups of 8 proofs supported with 888 endnotes!

 

I guess you could say we fairly well eight up Gordon’s 8 tiny teeny squeaks on incompatibility. Have we had fun? Or if Gordon’s faceless, brainless Frankenstein pygmy had eight enough real meat, and had pumped the real iron of research, perhaps he would not have been as wobbly and in such dire need of Paige Patterson’s character to lean upon in order for him to be able to stand up on his own strength. The reality is that I purposely tweaked the 8 et certa in order to slam the SBC expert Bill Gordon’s 8 squeaks all the more in his smaller-than-a-comic size Closer Look regurgitation of the 8 incompatibilities of the 1993 Original Frankenstein.

Just for more fun and just to be able to say What a hoot above, the use of 8 itself is only lampooning rhetoric. You see … the numbers mean nothing whatsoever in themselves. Furthermore, within the 888 endnotes and on-line bibliography, the vast array of academic resources come together and beat down Gordon’s Frankenstein pygmy with—literarily—a world-class beating. Character counting needs more light and can handle all the light we can give. Occulting character and occulting history help no one except the powerbroker’s hidden and often malicious agenda.

Since I turned in a draft in the first week of May 2005 and the first e-mail to the SBC Interfaith Witness Department began on 9-9-4—well, what a hoot!—but this was completed in under a year—a hard grueling year—but under a year nevertheless. Take a closer look. Is that 8 months? Would you believe that? I did work on editing for several more months.

Regardless, we thoroughly eight up Bill Gordon’s 8 tiny squeaks as well as eight up the 8 categories of anti-Masons with 8 cogently demonstrable groups of 8 proofs. To beat all, the SBC’s top academic and legendary leader President Paige Patterson—my former teacher—supports Bill Gordon’s ten-year-old wobbling, faceless, brainless Frankenstein pygmy today! What a hoot! Even the young girls at Hooters would be embarrassed at that hoot.[103]

Sheese, but imagine what could have been accomplished if someone worked really hard against the anti-Mason Frankenstein pygmy? In the light of this book and the heavy resources pointed to in this book, can you see just how shamefully lazy SBC expert Bill Gordon really was in 1993? Can you see how utterly without honor and so cowardly Gordon is today, standing behind his Frankenstein today? Can you see the lack of honor in Patterson who stands behind Gordon’s work to this day? Christian academia takes a beating when the SBC champion and in many ways the SBC chief academician President Paige Patterson exempts himself from accountability to his use of evil toward the fraternity of legions of legends, and his allegation of evil pales in comparison to the larger issue of his totally ignoring the value of character counting. Sheese! Dignity of human life takes a beating.

Ultimately, there is no other significance to the 8 groups of 8 proofs slaying Frankenstein than there is any significance to the number of points of a star—except as the adherent makes a meaning of the numbers. And here, precisely with the rhetoric and lampooning, we take eight (8) to a new level and push forward one more time Bill Gordon’s eight (8) maliciously mousy squeaks: conclusively, eight is not enough SBC dirt to dirty the character and reputations of ten legions of legends. Not even eight legions. And President Paige Patterson ought to know this instead of occult this and run like a mouse from this—hiding behind his character-reputation all along the way. The good SBC men and women and SBC history are far better than that, even his own presidential and theological predecessors were better and far more productive.

There truly is no end in sight as to how many groups of proofs and entire galaxies of material and full star systems of rational and limitlessly smoking rhetoric and lampoon there are—an expanding universe of material—that come against SBC expert Bill Gordon’s and Ankerberg’s and Holly’s Frankenstein pygmies and come against their (and Barton’s) occulting of character and occulting history. The occulting should stop. Truly, we need to put the battered Frankenstein pygmy to bed—permanently, without anymore occulting, prostitution, pandering, puns, and without any more of Patterson’s patronizing protection of inept whipping boys. Prostituting character and occulting good character and occulting good history serve only to advance Paganism and Heathenism—even Satanism. So says and so lived ten legions of legends on the centuries-old concourse of character counting history.

Wake up America! The more light to character counting the better.

I have done my part, as small and—well—as teeny tiny as this book is with respect to the honorable and distinguished legions of legends in Freemasonry and millions more—all of which make up our U.S. National Treasure in character counting. Character and history count, and character needs more light today, not less, but much more light.


 

 

Little Bibliography in 8 Sets a Little Annotated

 

They are at www.preciousheart.net/freemasonry - including abstracts and annotations. This cut-back version focuses upon the prominent. Like many Grand Lodges, the Texas Masonic Library has a host of sources, many not listed here. It is clear that Freemasonry is interwoven throughout the history of the United States and Europe in a fashion far more honorably than not, and that world history is always occulted—when not totally occulted—by the anti-Masons in their best work. Then, ironic to the uttermost, the anti-Masons profusely claim Freemasons are the ones occulting.

Red light indicates where you are in each section

Intro to Little Bibliography 

1. Top Shelf Freemasonry References & Few Others

2. List of Bibliography Compilations

3. Main Freemasonry Bibliography

3.a. Books on Freemasonry — 463 Authors of 931 Books

3.b. Ph.D. Dissertations on Freemasonry — 58 Authors

3.c. Pro Articles on Freemasonry — 137 Articles, w 50 Bk Rws

3.d. Foreign Books on Freemasonry — 226 Authors of 265 Books

3.e. News Articles 1985-2005 in Chrono Order — 226 Articles

4. Historical-General References — 374 Authors in 720 Books

5. Baptist References

6. Character Counts Bibliography — 251 Authors in 295 Books

7. Great Hoax—Léo Taxil’s Luciferian Doctrine

8. Anti-Mason Bibliography — 140 Authors

 

 

 

Character Counts
Freemasonry USA’s National Treasure and
Source of Our Founding Fathers’ Original Intent

A new book addressing every
major concern about Christian compatibility,
honor, and more – character counting needs more light today.

 

by Michael Glenn Maness

www.PreciousHeart.net/freemasonry

 

Order Now

 

 

 

 

 



[1] See www.preciousheart.net for more: Michael G. Maness, Would You Lie to Save a Life: the Quest for God’s Will This Side of Heaven: a Theology on the Ethics of Love (2005).

[2] On “character”: Webster’s Ninth Collegiate New Dictionary (Merriam-Webster, 1989), on the feature/s of the individual person, “a: one of the attributes or features that make up and distinguish the individual; a feature used to separate distinguishable things … b (1): a feature used to separate distinguishable things into categories; also : a group or king so separated … (2) the detectable expression of the action of a gene or group of genes (3): the aggregate of distinctive qualities characteristic of a breed, strain, or type … c: the complex of mental and ethical traits marking and often individualizing a person, group, or nation … d: main or essential nature esp. as strongly marked and serving to distinguish.” See also, Webster’s New Twentieth Century Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged, 2nd Ed. (Collins World, 1975): “5. a distinctive trait, quality, or attribute. 6. essential quality; nature; kind or sort. 7. an individual’s pattern of behavior or personality; moral constitution. 8. moral strength; self-discipline, fortitude, etc. 9. reputation. 10. good reputation; as, left without a shred of character. 11. a description of the traits or qualities of a person or type; character sketch. 12. a statement about the behavior, qualities, etc. of a person; recommendation.”

[3] See www.josephsoninstitute.org & www.charactercounts.org, the latter top at Google.com.

[4] Isabel Briggs Myers, et al, MBTI Manual: a Guide to the Development and Use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, 3rd ed. (Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1998; 420p.).

[5] David Keirsey, Please Understand Me II: Temperament, Character, Intelligence, (Prometheus Nemesis, 1998; 350p.; 1978): http://keirsey.com/pumII.html. Keirsey said Hippocrates told of four temperaments easily recognized as schizoform and cycloform: Sanguine (cheerful, optimistic), Choleric (easily angered, often unreasonably), Phlegmatic (slow, stolid), and Melancholic (depressed, sad) (McKinnon, 1944; Roback, 1927).

[6] Excerpt http://keirsey.com/pumII.html. David Keirsey, Please Understand Me II: Temperament, Character, Intelligence, (Prometheus Nemesis, 1998; 350p.).

[7] See www.sigmaassessmentsystems.com/sfpq.htm. Other personality measures include: the BPI (Basic Personality Inventory), CAB (Coolidge Assessment Battery), CPS (Carlson Psychological Survey), JPI-R (Jackson Personality Inventory-Revised), LDR (Leadership Development Report), NEO-FFI (NEO Five Factor), NEO-PI-R (NEO Personality Inventory-Revised), OSI-R (Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised), PAI (Personality Assessment Inventory), PRF (Personality Research Form), PSI (Personality Screening Inventory), PT (Psicologico Texto), RADS-2 (Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale-2), SRES (Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale), STAXI-2 (State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2), SIQ (Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire), and SWS (Survey of Work Styles).

[8] See www.pearsonassessments.com tests/tjta.htm. The T-JTA asks 180 questions measuring nine continuums: Nervous / Composed, Depressive / Light-Hearted, Active-Social / Quiet, Expressive-Responsive / Inhibited, Sympathetic / Indifferent, Subjective / Objective, Dominant / Submissive, Hostile / Tolerant, Self-Disciplined / Impulsive. Other tests include the 16PF, Bender-Gestalt II, BHI (Battery for Health Improvement), CAARS (Conner’s Adult ADHD Rating Scale), GZTS (Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey), MCMI-III (Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III), MIPS (Millon Index of Personality Styles), MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2), Rorschach, TAT (Thematic Apperception Test), VMI (Beery VMI or the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration).

[9] From 1 Corinthians 12 with Romans 12 adding 14-18. No matter what you believe about the gifts of healing, miracles, tongues (and to a lesser degree prophecy), most of the other gifts are readily accepted as active today. Compare Bill Bright, The Holy Spirit (Campus Crusade, 1980): 221.

[10] Taken from Col. 3:12-17; Phil. 2:2-3; Eph. 4:2-3, 32; Gal. 5:22-23; Rom. 14:17, 15:4-5; and 2 Cor. 6:4-10; and charted by Glen H. Stassen and David P. Gushee, Kingdom Ethics: Following Jesus in Contemporary Context (InterVarsity, 2003): 50.

[11] Matthew 5:3-10: see Stassen and Gushee, Kingdom Ethics (InterVarsity, 2003): 32-54.

[12] Christopher Peterson and Martin E. P. Seligman, Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2004; 816p.): 47. On the four cardinal virtues, the parenthetical is from Kenneth E. Kirk, “Cardinal Virtues” in Boulton, Kennedy, Verhey’s From Christ to the World: Introductory Readings in Christian Ethics (Eerdmans, 1994): 240, “Through the medium of Cicero’s “De Officiis” St. Ambrose first of all, and then his successors, drew from Plato and Aristotle that Greek classification which has always gone by the name of the cardinal virtues—prudence, justice, temperance, and fortitude. But Christian theology did not adopt them in any slavish spirit of imitation. It reinterpreted them and filled them with a Christian content.” Referencing Kirk’s Some Principles of Moral Theology (Longman, Greeen, 1920) and for Thomas Aquinas’ view between the cardinal and minor virtues, see W. H. V. Reade, The Moral System of Dante’s Inferno (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1909; 445 p.).

[13] See www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/apikefr.html, Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma (1871): chapter 1.

[14] William J. Bennett, The Book of Virtues (NY: Simon & Schuster, 1993).

[15] See http://billgothard.com/discipleship/49commands.php. Bill Gothard’s first Basic Youth Conflicts Seminar was taught in 1965 as a course at Wheaton College. In 1971, a third of a million youth and adults attended the seminar. To date, over 2.5 million people have gone through the thirty-two-hour course. The 49 virtues are referenced to commands as follows, for a few: 1. Repent (Mt 4:17), 2. Follow Me (Mt 4:19), 3. Rejoice (Mt 5:12), 4. Let Your Light Shine (Mt 5:16), 5. Honor God’s Law (Mt 5:17–18), 6. Be Reconciled (Mt 5:24–25), etc.

[16] Bill Bright, The Holy Spirit: the Key to Supernatural Living (San Bernardino, CA: Campus Crusade for Christ International, 1980; 279). With chapter 17 being “Love: God’s Greatest Gift,” Bright brings out the 8 virtues of Love in the successive chapters (18-25). Bright made famous the “Four Spiritual Laws” (God Loves you, man is sinful and separated, Jesus Christ the only provision, and must receive Jesus), the “Spirit-filled Life” is a life with Christ on the throne bring all areas of life in control and order, the analogy of a train with fact as the engine, faith as the coal car, and feeling as the caboose indicated the simplicity of mind over feeling in submitting to the Holy Spirit’s control. Since that time, some questions have evolved over the issues denial on the negative side and the importance of an attenuation to feelings for good health on the other side—even in a good Christian’s life, where even Jesus wept and had extreme passion.

[17] See www.nadn.navy.mil/CharacterDevelopment/ for a summary of its character building program: “The goal of the character development division is to integrate the moral, ethical, and character development of midshipmen across every aspect of the Naval Academy experience. The integrated character development program is the single most important feature that distinguishes the Naval Academy from other educational institutions and officer commissioning sources.”

[18] Frank H. Farley, “How to be great!” Psychology Today (Nov 01, 1995).

See www.psychologytoday.com/htdocs/prod/ptoarticle/pto-19951101-000035. See Merlin C. Wittrock and Frank Farley, eds., The Future of Educational Psychology (Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates, 1989; 211p.); Roswith Roth and Frank Farley, eds.,  The Spiritual Side of Psychology at Century’s End (Proceedings of the 57th Convention, International Council of Psychologists, August 15-19, 1999, Salem, Massachusetts, USA; Lengerich, Germany: Pabst Science Publishers, 2002; 279p.), Jan Strelau, Frank H. Farley, Anthony Gale, eds., The Biological Bases of Personality and Behavior (Washington: Hemisphere Pub. Corp.; McGraw-Hill, 1985); Frank H. Farley, and Neal J. Gordon, eds., Psychology and Education: the State of the union Union (Berkeley, CA: McCutchan, 1981; 405p.).

[19] See http://cornerstonevalues.org/biblio.htm, the New Zealand Foundation for Character Education Inc., and note that Weston Primary School in North Otago, New Zealand, has classified the picture book section of its library under the eight cornerstone values.

[20] Eric H. Erikson, Childhood and Society (2nd Ed.; NY: Norton, 1963); Insight and Responsibility (NY: Norton, 1964); Identity: Youth and Crisis (NY: Norton, 1968); The Life Cycle Completed (NY: Norton, 1982). Erikson’s influence cannot be overestimated to all facets of psychology, and his insights have such a clear ring of truth that much of his material on developmental stages has been transported into and expanded upon in theology and pastoral care.

[21] The hierarchy of needs was recast into virtues and strengths by Peterson and Seligman, Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification (Oxford Univ., 2004; 816p.): 63; Abraham Maslow’s has been formative but not as pervasive as Erikson; see Abraham Maslow, Religions, Values, and Peak Experiences (NY: Penquin, 1964), Motivation and Personality (2nd Ed.; NY: Harper & Row, 1970).

[22] Christopher Peterson and Martin E. P. Seligman, Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2004; 816p.).: 29-30. This massive and significant contribution shall become a classic in positive-preventative psychology, gathering together most of the secular psychological studies having a bearing upon the meaning and development of character. Moreover, for Christian theologians (and those of other religions), herein psychology has proved the value of values and of noble behavior as good for the soul and society. The bibliography has more technical journals relating to character than another work to date (that I am aware of). They left no psychological nook or cranny out.

[23] Leo Buscalia, Living, Loving, and Learning, edited by Steven Short, from Bascalia’s lectures worldwide between 1970 and 1981 (NY: Ballantine, 1982): 83-84. See www.buscaglia.com.

[24] Christopher Peterson and Martin E. P. Seligman, Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2004; 816p.): 46. Magnificence refers to tasteful spending on honorable things like sacrifices or warships, and greatness of soul refers to thinking of oneself worthy of things and honor in particular. For Aristotle, virtue is an acquired skill learned through trail and error, gained from reasoning and experience through a course of action between two extremes (deficiency or excess); so generosity is the mean between wastefulness and stinginess, and courage is the mean between cowardice and rashness.

[25] Peterson and Seligman, Character Strengths and Virtues (Oxford Univ. Press, 2004): 69. These are personality traits with correlations to virtues. These come from Warren T. Norman (“Toward an Adequate Taxonomy of Personality Attributes: Replicated Factor Structure in Peer Nomination Personality Ratings,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 66 [1963]: 574-583); according to Peterson and Seligman, Norman’s five groups came from lexical studies originating with Gordon Allport and Henry Odbert who through an unabridged dictionary and identified thousands of English words that referred to personality traits, with their largest category being “social evaluation” (Allport & Odbert, “Trait-names: A Psycho-Lexical Study,” Psychological Monographs [Whole No. 211, 1936]). See G. W. Allport, Personality: A Psychological Interpretation (NY: Holt, 1937) and Pattern and Growth in Personality (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1961).

[26] Mark Rutland, Character Matters: Nine Essential Traits You Need to Succeed (Lake Mary, FL: Charisma House, 2003; 153p.).

[27] See www.charactered.net.

[28] Joseph & Edna Josephson Institute of Ethics is a public-benefit, nonprofit membership organization founded by Michael Josephson in honor of his parents to improve the ethical quality of society by advocating principled reasoning and ethical decision making. Since 1987, over 100,000 including high-ranking public executives, congressional staff, editors, judges, and lawyers, and police officers have been trained, and many schools and institutions have initiated Character Counts programs on this model. See www.josephsoninstitute.org and www.charactercounts.org, the latter ranking top at Google.com.

Also, many states and institutions across the country have taken, assimilated, or emulated Character Counts programs. For example, the California Dept. of Ed. took initiatives to develop character in youth (www.cde.ca.gov/ci/cr/ce/), instituted state guidelines, helped sponsor the California Partnership for Character Education (CPCE) whose advisory boards includes reps from over 25 agencies and governmental entities (www.youthcitizenship.org/cpce/index.html).

At http://caracas.soehd.csufresno.edu/bonnercenter/promisingpractices/grade.htm, the CA state board has instituted character education, stating “Effective schools seek to develop and reinforce character traits, such as caring, citizenship, fairness, respect, responsibility, and trustworthiness, through a systematic approach that includes adult modeling, curriculum integration, a positive school climate, and access to comprehensive guidance and counseling services.” They quote Martin Luther King, jr., as saying, “Intelligence plus character—that is the goal of true education.”

[29] See www.school-for-champions.com/character/franklin_virtues.htm. Ron Kurtus indicated Franklin’s use of these in his Poor Richard’s Almanack and life.

[30] Ron Kurtus’s exposition www.school-for-champions.com/character/boy_scouts.htm. See official Boy Scouts of America (BSA) site at www.scouting.org: their oath is “On my honor I will do my best; To do my duty to God and my country and to obey the Scout Law; To help other people at all times; To keep myself physically strong, mentally awake, and morally straight.” BSA claim they are “the nation’s foremost youth program of character development and values-based leadership training,” and few would doubt with over 3 million served, 53,380 packs, 44,335 troops, 20,992 crews, 8,042 teams serving 41,271,251 hours and awarding 49,151 Eagle Scout awards in 2003.

[31] See www.characterbuilding.com: The foundation of the Character Classics program is a series of specially selected well-known classical melodies, which the Character Building Company has recorded along with catchy and innovative contemporary character-building lyrics. Children hear and learn about music from the world's most recognized classical composers like Mozart, Bach, Mendelssohn, Strauss, Beethoven, Tchaikovsky, and many others.

[32] Stephen R. Covey @ www.franklincovey.com/foryou/articles/seven.html, article “Seven Habits Revisited: Seven Unique Human Endowments” (11-1991). Covey very popular The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People: Restoring the Character Ethic (NY: Simon & Schuster, 1989; the sub-title now being “Powerful Lessons In Personal Change”; 340p.) has sold over 10 million and been a national best seller. See also Covey’s The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Families: Building a Beautiful Family Culture in a Turbulent World (NY: Golden Books, 1997; 390p.). Covey has been a very successful business-leadership seminar motivator, teaching some of the top executives of the top Fortune 500 companies.

[33] See www.eharmony.com/core/eharmony?cmd=dimensions. Most of the diverse questions center around 24 areas: 1. Personal Values, 2. Energy, 3. Family Background, 4. Honesty, 5. Enjoy Presence, 6. Dependability, 7. Intelligence, 8. Sex Appeal, 9. Love of Children, 10. Beliefs, 11. Fun-Loving, 12. Physical, 13. Chemistry, 14. Security with Them, 15. Similarities, 16. Romantic Attraction, 17. Personality, 18. Kindness, 19. Sexual Compatibility, 20. Ability to Communicate, 21. Skill Resolving Conflicts, 22. Friendliness, 23. Ability Emotional Intimacy, 24. Friendship Between.

[34] See www.eharmony.com and Neil Clark Warren’s Finding the Love of Your Life (Focus on the Family, 1992; 166p.). There are several other works on the site, including: Date ... or Soul Mate? How to Know If Someone Is Worth Pursuing In Two Dates Or Less; Catching the Rhythm of Love; Learning to Live with the Love of Your Life.

[35] The 87 are: warm, clever, dominant, ambitious, outgoing, agreeable, modest, submissive, lazy, introverted, aloof, quarrelsome, cold, gregarious, arrogant, impulsive, stable, energetic, spiritual, adventuresome, frugal, predictable, affectionate, organized, intelligent, compassionate, attractive, loyal, witty, neat, content, humorous, efficient, artistic, perfectionist, creative, spontaneous, sensitive, under-achiever, uncomplicated, generous, intellectual, moral, disciplined, adaptable, communicative, honest, sensual, liberal, charming, patient, reliable, resilient, optimistic, conservative, passionate, reflective, caring, genuine, open, self-aware, competitive, over-achiever, vivacious, wise, bossy, leader, irritable, show-off, independent, kind, calm, courageous, aggressive, persistent, outspoken, follower, rational, opinionated, restless, romantic, selfish, shy, stubborn, trusting, jealous.

[36] James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner, The Leadership Challenge: How to Get Extraordinary Things Done in Organizations (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1987). This book is a hundredfold more substantive than Covey’s 7 habits in concrete examples and raw data, and there is a substantial bibliography. It began in 1983 as a research project where surveys were collected from 550 and another 780 managers, and these were compared to 42 in-depth interviews and then all of that was collated into an inventory for 3,000 managers and subordinates. Kouzes was president of Tom Peters Group Learning Systems, made famous by Tom Peters and Robert H. Waterman’s best selling In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America’s Best-run Companies (1st ed.; NY: Harper & Row, 1982; 360p.; so popular, a 2004 edition is out by HarperBusiness Essentials).

[37] James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner, Credibility—How Leaders Gain and Lose It, Why People Demand It (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1993): 14, from 15,000 survey, “a from 1993 U.S. respondents percentage of people selecting, and “b” from 1987 respondents. This supplement to their Leadership Challenge is as ground-breaking and substantive, and full of case studies and concrete examples.

[38] James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner, Credibility: How Leaders Gain and Lose It, Why People Demand It (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1993): 1-26, chapter 1.

[39] Christopher Peterson and Martin E. P. Seligman studied many dozens of groups of virtues in collaboration with many scholars and then distilled their work into their massive Character Strengths and Virtues: A Handbook and Classification (Oxford Univ. Press, 2004; 816p.).

[40] See www.teachingcharacter.com.

[41] See www.characterbuilding.com/abcbook.htm; Mark Bell at Magine That, P.O. Box 159, Grapevine, TX   76099, Phone: 817-491-8773: “Each trait is briefly defined, and a poem elaborates on that definition. A second poem applies each trait to a child's everyday experience, with a whimsical illustration that even young children can understand. Children will love the amusing poems and illustrations and adults will appreciate learning exactly what each character traits means.”

[42] See www.character.org: “Character education holds that widely shared, pivotally important, core ethical values—such as caring, honesty, fairness, responsibility, and respect for self and others—form the basis of good character. A school committed to character development stands for these values (sometimes referred to as "virtues" or "character traits"), defines them in terms of behaviors that can be observed in the life of the school, models these values, studies and discusses them, uses them as the basis of human relations in the school, celebrates their manifestations in the school and community, and holds all school members accountable to standards of conduct consistent with the core values.”

[43] See www.collegevalues.org/bestprograms.cfm.

[44] See www.newadvent.org/cathen/03584b.htm.

[45] James L. Holly. The Southern Baptist Convention and Freemasonry (3 vols. Beaumont, TX: Mission and Ministry to Men, 1992; 1993, vols. 1 & 2 combined; 1994 edition, vol. 3, has a critique of “A study of Freemasonry” and “A report on Freemasonry” including a response to Dr. William Gordon’s “The SBC and Freemasonry, Volume I” and a cumulative index to all three volumes.).

[46] Michael G. Maness, Heart of the Living God: Love, Free Will, Foreknowledge, Heaven: a Theology of the Treasure of Love (AuthorHouse, 2005; 706p.).

[47] James L. Holly’s Southern Baptist Convention and Freemasonry (1992-94, 3v.): I:42.

[48] Personal e-mail from James L. Holly dated March 16, 2005, 6:35 AM.

[49] Personal reponse dated March 16, 2005, 7:05 PM. He was using plain text, so I responded in the same, which does not allow italics in such e-mails.

[50] Personal e-mail to James L. Holly dated 3-18-2005, 5:18 AM. Diction correction made.

[51] James L. Holly, Southern Baptist Convention and Freemasonry (1992-94, 3v.): III:77.

[52] James L. Holly, Southern Baptist Convention and Freemasonry (1992-94, 3v.): III:176.