Little Bibliography in 8 Categories a Little Annotated

See Character Counts—Freemasonry in Christianity &
in Our Founding Fathers’ Original Intent Slays the Anti-Mason Frankenstein

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Intro to Little Bibliography = Intro & TOP Shelf

1. TOP Shelf Freemasonry References & Couple of Others


2. List of Bibliography Compilations


3. Main Freemasonry Bibliography


3.a. Books on Freemasonry — 463 Authors of 931 Books


3.b. Ph.D. Dissertations on Freemasonry — 58 Authors

3.c. Pro Articles on Freemasonry — 137 Articles, w 50 Bk Rws


3.d. Foreign Books on Freemasonry — 226 Authors of 265 Books


3.e. News Articles 1985-2005 in Chrono Order — 226 Articles


4. Historical-General References — 374 Authors in 720 Books


5. Baptist References


6. Character Counts Bibliography — 251 Authors in 295 Books


7. Great Hoax—Léo Taxil’s Luciferian Doctrine

a. General Info, Web Sties, and One Excellent Refutation

b. Publications Still Duped by Taxil’s Hoax

c. Publications Exposing Taxil’s Hoax


8. Anti-Mason Bibliography — 100 Authors


3.c. Pro Articles on Freemasonry — 137 Articles, w 50 Bk Rws

The following articles do not include the many regular communications and publications of the many Grand Lodges and significant large lodges around the world. Nor do they include several other Freemasonry magazines, like the hundreds of articles in the Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, The Scottish Rite Journal of Freemasonry Southern Jurisdiction, the York Rite magazine, and many others. The following come from professional journals connected mostly to the major academic centers and mostly deal with some aspect of raw history of Freemasonry around the world.

Abend, Lisa. “Specters of the Secular: Spiritism in Nineteenth-century Spain.” European History Quarterly. October, 2004, 34:507-35. Explores the issue of spiritualism during the nineteenth-century in Spain. Impact of the revelation of Cadiz Bishop, Juan José Arbolí regarding his belief in science and not in the blind faith and unthinking obedience that the Church demands on the faith of Catholics; Reason for engaging in spiritualism; Overlap in belief of audiences for Frausism, freemasonry and spiritism.

Adhami, Siamak. “A note on ‘The House of Oblivion.’” Central Asian Survey September 99:385-392. Focuses on freemasons and the freemasonry order in Central Asia. Attribution of freemasonry to encyclopedist Ahmad Danesh; Account of the Houses of Oblivion of freemasons; Secrecy and brotherhood in the movement; Effect of the movement on religious beliefs; References of freemasonry in literature.

Allen, James Smith. ‘Sisters of Another Sort: Freemason Women in Modern France, 1725-1940.’ Journal of Modern History December 2003, 75:783-736. Focuses on the role and significance of women in modern public life in France. Provision of a valuable perspectives on women’s participation in voluntary associations; Connection of masonry with fraternal organizations;Consideration of the form of civil society.

Andreev, D. A.. “The Evolution of Russian Freemasonry’s Political Doctrine.” Russian Social Science Review March-April 1997, 38:64-76. Discusses the Russian political Freemasonary, by Soviet and Russian historiography. Reference to the book August 1914 by N.N. Iakovlev; Evolution of the political doctrine of Russian Freemasonry. Translated by Kim Braithwaite.

Andrew, Joe. Bk review: “The Esoteric Tradition in Russian Romantic Literature: Decembrism and Freemasonry by Lauren G. Leighton.” Modern Language Review January 1998, 93:300-301.

Anonymous. “Freemasonry Vote Scheduled for Convention.” Christianity Today May 17, 1993, 37:6:81.

Ayers, Carolyn J. Bk review: “The Esoteric Tradition in Russian Romantic Literature: Decembrism and Freemasonry.” The Russian Review Jan 1996 55:1:107-110.

Bagby, Lewis. Bk review: “The Esoteric Tradition in Russian Romantic Literature: Decembrism and Freemasonry by Lauren G. Leighton.” Slavic Review Spring 1996 55:1:226-243.

Bailey, Charles R. Bk review: “Speculative Freemasonry and the Enlightenment: A Study of the Craft in London, Paris, Prague and Vienna by R. William Weisberger.” European History Quarterly April 1995 25:2:293f.

Batley, Edward M. “Lessing’s Templars and the Reform of German Freemasonry.” German Life & Letters July 1999, 52:297-214. The figure of the Templar plays an important part in two of Lessing’s later works, Ernst und Falk: Gesprache fur Freimaurer and Nathan der Weise.

Beachy, Robert. “Recasting Cosmopolitanism: German Freemasonry and Regional Identity in the Early Nineteenth Century.” Eighteenth-Century Studies; Winter 2000, 33:266-275. Focuses on the relationship between German Enlightenment and freemasonry in the eighteenth century. Proliferation of lodges; Influence of German romanticism and proto-nationalism; Analysis of the lodges as a vehicle for establishing the social and cultural dimensions of the German Enlightenment.

Belikov, Andrei. “A History of Freemasonry in Russia.” Moscow News (in English) Feb 5-11, 1998. 3:12.

Bellesiles, Michael A. Bk review: “Revolutionary Brotherhood: Freemasonry and the Transformation of the American Social Order, 1730-1840 by Steven C. Bullock.” Journal of the Early Republic Fall 1997, 17:541-542.

Biema, David Van. “Endangered Conspirators.” Time May 25, 1998 151:20:48 & 51.

Bladek, John David. Bk review: “The History of Freemasonry in Virginia by Richard A. Rutyna and Peter C. Stewart (NY: Univ. Press of America, for the Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of Virginia, 1998, 561p.).” Virginia Magazine of History & Biography Spring 1999, 107:227-228.

Brooke, John L. Bk review: “Revolutionary Brotherhood: Freemasonry and the Transformation of the American Social Order, 1730-1840 by Steven C. Bullock.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History Summer 1997, 28:145-147.

Brookhiser, Richard. “Ancient, Earnest, Secret and Fraternal.” Civilization 3:58-63 Aug/Sep, 1996. Focus on advertising campaigns to increase the organization’s membership; Egalitarian attitude; History of modern Freemasonry in the English-speaking world.

Brooks, Joanna. “Prince Hall, Freemasonry, and Genealogy.” African American Review. Summer 2000, 34:197-217. Focuses on the republished and repopularized 18th-century speeches that suggest a complex history of Ethiopianism. “Sermon to the African Lodge of the Honourable Society of Free and Accepted Masons,” by John Marrant; “Charges to the Lodge at Charlestown,” by Prince Hall; “Metonomy”; Debate regarding Hall’s life story; Details on Hall’s masonic life; Letter books written by Hall; Profile of Marrant.

Bullock, Steven C. “Remapping Masonry: A Comment.” Eighteenth-Century Studies Winter 2000, 33:275-280. Focuses on the role of freemasonry in the Enlightenment. Masonry lodges as a venue and a public space for criticizing the government; Influence of the fraternity in changing the view on women and charity; Changing nature of the masonry.

Burgan, William M. “Masonic Symbolism in The Moonstone and The Mystery of Edwin Drood.” In: Dickens Studies Annual, v16. AMS Press, 1987: 257-303. Freemasonry in literature in Wilkie Collins’ (1824-1889) The Moonstone and Charles Dickens’ (1812-1870) The Mystery of Edwin Drood.

Burke, Janet M,  Jacob, Margaret C. “French Freemasonry, Women, and Feminist Scholarship.” The Journal of Modern History September 1996, 68:3:513-551.

Burke, Janet M. “Leaving the Enlightenment: Women freemasons after the Revolution.” Eighteenth-Century Studies Winter 2000, 33:255-266. Discusses the role of women freemasons in France during the French Revolution. Establishment of mixed-gender lodges in France; Relationship of the lodges to the changing intellectual and social atmosphere of France; Loss of the gains made by women’s autonomy after the Revolution.

Burke, Janet M. Bk review: La République Universelle des Francs-Maçons (Book). Journal of Modern History December 2001, 73:935-937. Reviews the book “La Republique Universelle des Francs-Macons de Newton a Metternich,” by Pierre-Yves Beaurepaire.

Burmistrov, Konstantin. “The Place of Kabbalah in the Doctrine of Russian Freemasons.” Aries 2004, 4:27-69. Analyzes the kabbalistic constituent of Masonic teaching in Russia. Problems with the study of Masonic teaching; Trends in Russian freemasonry from the late 18th century to the early 19th century; Beliefs of masons; Role of masons in the society during the age of Catherine the Great or Catherine II, Empress of Russia, 1729-1796.

Burt, R. “Freemasonry and Business Networking During the Victorian Period.” The Economic History Review November 2003 56:657-688. Role of Freemasonry in socio-economic networking in Cornwall during the late nineteenth century. It demonstrates that, like many other fraternities, Masonry created efficient conduits for the exchange of business information and reinforced a pro-business culture. Particular attention is given to its role in facilitating the migration of Cornish miners and mine managers and in creating structures for national and international information flows. Masonry is shown to have the unusual potential to bridge wide occupational, social, and cultural divisions, and the sources for further, wider ranging research are indicated.

Cassel, Russell N. “Freemasonry’s Contribution to the U.S. Constitution (Anderson’s Constitutions of 1723) A Two-Act Play (A True Story).” Education 112:42-47 Fall, 1991. Discusses the importance of Virginian Edmund Randolph’s contribution to the making of the US Constitution, a fact that is seldom fully recognized, play depicting exactly what took place from May 14-25, 1787 in the development of the Virginia plan.

Cassel, Russell N. “Valley Forge as the Cradle of Democracy with Freemasonry as the Integrating Force (A Truly Most Sacred Place).” Education 113:8-21, Fall/Winter 1992. Examines the American Continental Army’s Winter Encampment of 1777-78 at Valley Forge. British troops in New York City, Philadelphia, and Newport Village; Divided loyalties in America; The British in Philadelphia; Freemasonry and the American Revolution; Washington’s inner circle; France’s recognition of American independence; Lafayette. Cassel said, “Freemasonry is the single nucleus from which the present Movement towards democracy had sprung, and it continues to serve as the watchword for freedom and equality among people everywhere.” After the Battle of Yorktown and the Revolutionary War was over, and Lafayette said: “Humanity has won its battle; liberty now has a country.” (Colonel, AF Retired Senior Research Scientist, 1362 Santa Cruz Court, Chula Vista, California 91910).

Chabot, Bruce. Bk review: “Freemasonry on Both Sides of the Atlantic: Essays Concerning the Craft in the British Isles, Europe, the United States, and Mexico” Journal of Social History Summer 2004, 37:1111-1114. Reviews the book Freemasonry on Both Sides of the Atlantic: Essays Concerning the Craft in the British Isles, Europe, the United States, and Mexico edited by R. William Weisberger, Wallace McLeod and S. Brent Morris.

Chitnis, Anand C. Bk review: “Speculative Freemasonry and the Enlightenment: A Study of the Craft in London, Paris, Prague and Vienna by R. William Weisberger.” History June 1995 80:259:305f.

Clawson, Mary A. “Nineteenth-century Women’s Auxiliaries and Fraternal Orders.” Signs 1986 12:40-61. Discusses the significance of the institution of the fraternal order as a form of male social organization, the particular versions of masculine and feminine identity that it proposed, and the feminine responses that it evoked. Topics of discussion include Masonic roots of 19th century fraternalism; Freemasonry; and the cult of domesticity, honorary degrees for women, auxiliaries after the Civil War, auxiliary rituals, and the struggle for power within the auxiliaries.

Clayton, J Douglas. “The Esoteric Tradition in Russian Romantic Literature.” Canadian Slavonic Papers Sep 1995 37:3-4:550-551.

Cohen, Nick. “Is Fascism Behind the Terror?” New Statesman 4-12-2004, 133:22-24. Discusses how certain Islamic extremists believe that the Freemasons are plotting to take over the world. Efforts of the regime of former Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein to impose penalties on anyone who promotes or incites Zionist principles including Freemasonry; Consideration of the reaction of the British that the Masons are Mafia members set on world domination; Examples of how the paranoid ideas associated with fascist Europe have spread to reactionary movements such as al-Qaeda; Comparison of Islamic extremism and anti-Semitism in their persecution of Freemasonry; Argument that Islamism and Ba’athism are models that repeat the crimes of fascist dictatorships in the 1930s in Europe.

Cornwell, Neil. Bk review: “The Esoteric Tradition in Russian Romantic Literature: Decembrism and Freemasonry by Lauren G. Leighton.” The Slavonic and East European Review Apr 1996 74:2:274-312.

De La Cova, Antonio Rafael. “Filibusters and Freemasons: The Sworn Obligation.” Journal of the Early Republic Spring 1997, 17:95-221. Discusses the implications of Cuban filibustering and freemasonry to the United States. Reference to the book Lopez’s Expeditions to Cuba 1850-1851 by Anderson C. Quisenberry; Masonic connection of filibustering; Origins of Masonry; Development of freemasonry in America in 1730; Creation of the Havana Club in 1848; Sworn Masonic obligation of filibusters.

De Los Reyes, Guillermo. “Freemasonry and Folklore in Mexican Presidentialism.” Journal of American Culture Summer 1997, 20:61-70. Provides information concerning what is involved in the semi-legendary status of Mexican masonry. Influence which masonry have on the political process through what can be called mythological power; Contributions which masonry made to the fabrication of a motherland patriotic epic; How the perceptions of masons effects their lives.

De Madariaga, Isabel. Bk review: Working the Rough Stone—Freemasonry in Eighteenth Century Russia by Douglas Smith. Slavonic & East European Review January 2001, 79:160-162.

DeMotte, Charles. “Baseball and Freemasonry in American Culture.” In: William M. Simons, ed. The Cooperstown Symposium on Baseball and American Culture, 2001. McFarland & Co., 2002; 370p.: 263-75.

De Schampheleire, Dirk, “Attitudes towards Belgian Freemasonry.” Psychologica Belgica 1972 12:155-173. Studied attitudes toward Belgian Freemasonry-a secret organization in Belgium. The sample included 414 Ss, 112 in a door-to-door inquiry in Antwerp and 302 Flemish undergraduates. The questionnaire included (a) free associations to the word Freemasonry; (b) evaluative scores on a list of possible definitions of Freemasonry, indicating that “mutual assistance” is a salient feature; (c) a comparison between Freemasonry and other pressure groups, indicating that public opinion does not consider Freemasonry an important pressure group; and (d) content analysis of public opinion conceiving the person of Freemasonry, his organizational activities and secretiveness. Attitudes toward Freemasonry are connected with ideological values. Evaluations range from neutral to slight antipathy. There is some evidence of willingness to join the organization, of lack of information, and the need for information.

Doan, R. Stephen. “Origins of Masonry.” Education 114:24-26, Fall, 1993. Traces the foundations of the philosophical principles of Masonry to the ancient philosophical societies surrounding the building of King Solomon’s temple in ancient Israel. Development of Gothic architecture; Philosophical lesson symbolized by the tool; Structure of Freemasonry; Perfecting the spiritual edifice of each person.

Dorsey, Bruce. Bk review: “Revolutionary Brotherhood: Freemasonry and the Transformation of the American Social Order, 1730-1840 by Steven C. Bullock.” Journal of American History September 1998, 85:671-672.

Dupin-Bénesse, Marie-Paule. “Femmes et Féminin en Loge Maçonnique Masculine: Women and the Feminine in the Male Masonic Lodge.” Pratiques Psychologiques 1998, 3:17-27. Discusses the psychological aspects of male-female relationships in Freemasonry. The admission of women to the male Masonic lodge and the psychoanalytical aspects of the extension of the psychosocial male-female sphere are examined. The ways in which the male-female relationship renews psychological bisexuality, weakens narcissism, and blurs identity are described.

Epstein, Daniel Mark. Bk review: “The Guild That Grew and Grew.” Wall Street Journal. 02-6-2002, 239: A16. Reviews the book The Freemasons by Jasper Ridley.

Frahm, Sally. “The Cross and the Compass: Manifest Destiny, Religious Aspects of the Mexican-American War.” Journal of Popular Culture Fall 2001, 35:83-100. The article focuses on the religious aspects of the Mexican-American War. There has been a tendency for Christians to blame each other, in ignorance of the inroads Masonry has made into the Christian faith, Catholics blaming Protestants, Protestants Catholics. Another area of confusion is that a significant number of North American Christians look to the United States as a Christian nation, the founding fathers as exemplary Christians. Freemasonry is eclectic, taking, as Masons believe, the best from all religions. Christianity may agree that all religions contain some truth but deny that there is any other Savior than Jesus, any other way of salvation but the cross. Them are many variations of meaning for manifest destiny.

Freund, Charles Paul. “Unaccepted Masons.” Reason July 2000, 32:14-15. Reports on the claim of the Labour government of Great Britain that Masonry is corrupting justice in the country. Response of the Masons to the claim; Reason behind the decision of the government to block a registry it created whereby policemen and others may voluntarily identify their lodge of identification; Origin of the controversy.

Friedman, Jonathan. “Americans Again, or the New Age of Imperial Reason?” Theory, Culture & Society February 2000, 17:139-148. This article presents the author’s comments on the article On the Cunning of Imperialist Reason by Pierre Bourdieu and Loïc Wacquant, published in a 1999 issues of Theory, Culture & Society. The new classes and their associated intellectual elites represent a new cosmopolitan multicultural identity in the making. Given the nature of this position it ought not to be shocking to see parallels with the Freemasonry of the past. The notions of world government, of transnationalism and globalization as a future for the world ordered by multiculturalism and liberalism are all continuous with the Masonic past. Even in economic terms, as Braudel insisted, periods of globalization of capital can be understood as periods of hegemonic decline in which old centres finance the development of new centres. There is a core of positionally produced categorizations of the world that is worth noting. The link between multiculturalism/hybridity, globalism, neo-liberalism, flexibility -as-solution, is basic to a coherent understanding of the cosmopolitan-capitalist experience of the world. The formation of an experience space, a habitus, perhaps, might be sought for in the conditions of global elite existence. This is not reducible to U.S. imperialism. It is far more pernicious in its combination of liberatory prose and hierarchical assumptions.

Gilgoff, Dan. “Devil in a Red Fez.” U.S. News & World Report 08-26-2002. 133:46. Focuses on the deception surrounding the Freemasons, a free-thinking fraternal order dating to the Middle Ages which posed a threat to Catholicism. Role of Gabriel Jogand-Pages, better known as Léo Taxil in making the Freemasons out to be Satanists through his writings; Influence of Taxil.

Goff, Philip. Bk review: “Revolutionary Brotherhood: Freemasonry and the Transformation of the American Social Order, 1730-1840 by Steven C. Bullock.” History: Review of New Books Spring97, 25:112-113.

Gordon, John. “Budgen Was a Hunk, and Other Zurich Comprehensions.” James Joyce Quarterly Spring/Summer 2000, 37:323-327. Highlights a conference held at the Zurich James Joyce Center in Switzerland. Informal talks coming from the most internationally diverse roster of participants in the center’s history; Eishiro Ito’s talk on Freemasonry in “Ulysses”; Gregory Downing’s talk on the styles of “Oxen of the Sun”; Discussions about Joycean representations of femininity.

Graham, John T. Bk review: “Living the Enlightenment: Freemasonry and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Europe by Margaret C. Jacob.” The American Historical Review June 1993, 98:3:858-859.

Gregg, R. Choice. Bk review: “The Esoteric Tradition in Russian Romantic Literature: Decembrism and Freemasonry by Lauren G. Leighton.” Middletown April 1995 32:8:1309f.

Guillermo, Reyes. “Freemasonry and Folklore in Mexican Presidentialism.” Journal of American & Comparative Cultures Summer 1997, 20:61-69.

Hackett, David G. “The Prince Hall Masons and the African American Church: The Labors of Grand Master and Bishop James Walker Hood, 1831-1918.” Church History December 2000, 69:770-803. Details the achievements of James Walker Hood, a bishop during the 19th century in the United States. Contributions of Hood to the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church (AMEZ) and to the North Carolina Grand Lodge of Prince Hall Masons; Comparison of the two organizations with which Hood was affiliated; Discussion on the significance of secret male societies, like the Masonic lodges and denomination churches such as AMEZ for African American religious life.

Halpern, Avner. “Freemasonry and Party Building in Late 19th-Century France.” Modern & Contemporary France May 2002, 10:197-211. At the beginning of the 20th century, the French Third Republic political system was still composed only of parliamentary groups and politically oriented voluntary organisations. No modern political parties existed yet. The formation of the Radical Party in 1901 created a new political order in France. From that year on, the Third Republic was to possess, like the USA and Britain, a modern political party system. Who created the Radical Party, and how? The French Freemasonry was the major actor in that it formed the Radical Party using two political instruments developed throughout most of the 19th century. These are the “regional Masonic congresses” and the “civil leadership model.” This article analyses the way French Free masonry moulded these tools and used them in creating the Radical Party.

Hampson, Norman. Bk review: “Masonic Undertones – Living the Enlightenment: Freemasonry and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Europe by Margaret C. Jacob.” TLS, the Times Literary Supplement Jun 12, 1992, 4654:9f.

Hanyan, Craig. Bk review: “Revolutionary Brotherhood: Freemasonry and the Transformation of the American Social Order, 1730-1840.” Journal of American Culture Fall 1997 20:3:81-82.

Harland-Jacobs, Jessica. “‘Hands Across the Sea’: The Masonic Network, British Imperialism, and the North Atlantic World.”  Geographical Review April 1999, 89:237-254. From Montreal to Madras, from Barbados to Burma, the lodges of Freemasons dotted the landscape of the British Empire from the eighteenth century to the twentieth. Together with the British grand lodges under whose authority they met, these lodges constituted a vast network that extended across the oceans and linked Freemasons in Britain’s colonies to the metropole and to each other. In this article I use the fraternity to demonstrate how the age of empire can serve as a laboratory for studying transoceanic networks, institutions, and identities. Looking first at the broad imperial context, I demonstrate how the global Masonic network developed and describe its functions during the long nineteenth century. I then focus on the British North Atlantic as a case study of the brotherhood’s role in connecting people on various sides of a particular ocean basin by offering practical services and encouraging an “imperialist” identity that helped consolidate the British Empire. Keywords: Atlantic studies, Freemasonry, intracultural connections, network, supranationalist identity.

Harland-Jacobs, Jessica. “All in the Family: Freemasonry and the British Empire in the Mid—Nineteenth Century.” Journal of British Studies October 2003, 42:448-493. Focuses on the history of Freemasonry and the British Empire in the mid-nineteenth century. Discussion of the Mason’s use of rituals in creating a sense of community and mutual obligation; Description of the Masonic fraternity which departed from typical families; Explanation of the Freemason’s Masonic ideology; Impact of immigration on freemasonry; Factors contributing the composition of the Masonic community, including the presence of Indian Masons.

Harland-Jacobs, Jessica. Bk review: “Revolutionary Brotherhood: Freemasonry and the Transformation of the American Social Order, 1730-1840 by Steven C. Bullock.” Social History January 1998, 23:106-107. Harland-Jacobs said, “The first academic history to shed light on the largely unexplored world of Freemasonry in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century America, Revolutionary Brotherhood is a remarkable book.”

Harris, Marc L. Bk review: “Revolutionary Brotherhood: Freemasonry and the Transformation of the American Social Order, 1730-1840 (Chapel Hill: Univ. North Carolina Press for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, VA, 1996, 421p.) by Steven C. Bullock.” H-Net Reviews in the Humanities & Social Sciences January 1998.

Harrison, Peter. Bk review: “Living the Enlightenment: Freemasonry and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Europe. By Margaret C. Jacob.” Historian Spring, 1994, 56:599-600.

Harty, John. “The Woman Who Hid Inside a Clock.” James Joyce Quarterly Summer 1994 31:4:566f.

Hawkes Jr., Robert T. Bk review: The History of Freemasonry in Virginia by Richard A. Rutyna and Peter C. Stewart. Journal of Southern History November 2000, 66:854.

Hoffmann, Stefan-Ludwig. “Civility, Male Friendship, and Masonic Sociability in Nineteenth-Century Germany.” Gender & History August 2001, 13:224-249. Largely neglected by historians who assume that its heyday passed in Europe with the demise of the Old Regime, Freemasonry in fact became a mass phenomenon among German (and French as well as American) middle-class men in the nineteenth century. Masonic secrecy made possible a form of sociability which allowed men to experience intimate relations with each other. Within the lodge, men could experience the emotional drama of the rituals while, both in public and in the family, men increasingly sought to comply with the ideal of a man ruled by reason. Masonic rituals entailed the implicit message that the most important presupposition for civility, moral improvement and a “brotherhood of all men” was male friendship.

Hyde, S. C. “Lodge of the Double-Headed Eagle: Two centuries of Scottish Rite Freemasonry in America’s Southern Jurisdiction.” Choice Mar 1998 35:7:1252.

Jacob, Margaret C. “Exits from Enlightenment.” Eighteenth-Century Studies Winter 2000, 33:251-255. Focuses on the role of Masonic idealism in the Enlightenment. Evolution of the lodges in Germany as a venue of expression; Influence of freemasonry on the development of cosmopolitanism, secular fraternity and humanitarianism.

Jacob, Margaret C. “Money, Equality, Fraternity: Freemasonry and the Social Order in Eighteenth-Century Europe.” In: Thomas L. Haskell and Richard F. Teichgraeber III, eds. The Culture of the Market: Historical Essays. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1993; 524p: 102-135.

Jacob, Margaret C. Bk review: “Revolutionary Brotherhood: Freemasonry and the Transformation of the American Social Order, 1730-1840 by Steven C. Bullock.” William & Mary Quarterly October 1997, 54:849-851.

Karel, Thomas A. Bk review: “The Freemasons: A History of the World’s Most Powerful Secret Society by Jasper Ridley.” Library Journal 12-01-2001, 126:147-160.

Karpiel, Frank J., Jr. “Mystic Ties of Brotherhood: Freemasonry, Ritual, and Hawaiian Royalty in the Nineteenth Century.” Pacific Historical Review August 2000, 69:357-409. Explores the concept of Civic Masonry, the public and private manifestations of the secret society that specifically reinforced the monarchy of Hawaii. Relationship between monarchs and Masons; Functions of freemasonry for the Hawaiian kingdom’s native leaders; Factors driving the formation of Civic Masonry; Fraternity initiation of Kamehameha IV; Link of Masonry to the structures of social power in Hawaii; Involvement of David Kalakaua in the world of Masonry.

Kilde, Jeanne Halgren. “The Spectacle of Freemasonry.” American Quarterly June 1998, 50:376-397. Reviews the exhibition “Theatre of the Fraternity: Staging the Ritual Space of The Scottish Rite of Freemasonry 1896-1929.” Museums in which the exhibition will be held; Dates of the exhibition at the various venues; Development of the “Theater of the Fraternity,” by curator C. Lance Brockman and the Weisman Art Gallery at the University of Minnesota; Objective of the exhibition.

Kilde, Jeanne Halgren. Bk review: “Freemasonry on Both Sides of the Atlantic: Essays Concerning the Craft in the British Isles, Europe, the United States, and Mexico edited by R. William Weisberger, Wallace McLeod and S. Brent Morris.” Journal of American History December 2003, 90:987-989.

Kirby, Dianne. “Christianity and Freemasonry: The Compatibility Debate Within the Church of England.” Journal of Religious History (International Affairs, University of Ulster). February 2005, 29:43-64. Perceptions of the Church of England as a traditional stronghold of Freemasonry persist. The compatibility of Freemasonry and Christianity became an issue most recently when the new archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, expressed his own unease about the question shortly before his enthronement. This article uses primary sources from Lambeth Palace to explore in detail a previous episode during the 1950s when the compatibility question created a furor within the ranks of church and brotherhood that involved leading members of the British establishment, including His Majesty King George VI and the archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher. Addressed by Parliament and the Foreign Office, as well as the popular media, the affair, implicating the Crown and the church, seemed to threaten disestablishment. An examination is made of the difficulties that the question raised for Anglicans at all levels and the way in which the controversy was handled by leading Freemasons and churchmen. The article goes on to address subsequent incidents that raised the compatibility question, looking at changing attitudes and behaviour over time and the implications for the nature of both institutions.

Landau, Jacob M. “Muslim Opposition to Freemasonry.” Die Welt des Islams 1996, 36:186-203.

Langford, Martha. “Une Architecture Murmurante: An Expression of Freemasonry in Claude-Nicolas Ledoux’s Propylaea for Paris? (Anthony Vidler, France).” M.A. thesis, McGill Univ., Canada, 1991. Anthony Vidler’s recent monograph on the eighteenth-century French architect Claude-Nicolas Ledoux (1736-1806) characterizes certain aspects of Ledoux’s work as Masonic. Vidler defines Freemasonry primarily as an instrument of sociability. His recognition of Masonic imagery and intent, especially in Ledoux’s Ideal City, combines with certain details of Ledoux’s life to convince Vidler of Ledoux’s adherence to a Masonic or quasi-Masonic lodge. The matter remains open to debate. Vidler’s view of Freemasonry does not entirely accord with its factious and ambitious condition in eighteenth-century France. Nor does he sufficiently address the public manifestation of Masonic symbolism which, despite the Order’s code of secrecy, was divulged to the profane, emerging architecturally as part of Neoclassicism’s stylistic revival of the antique. The weakness of Vidler’s analysis becomes apparent when he overlooks Masonic symbolism in a project that does not conform to his positive image of the Order: Ledoux’s network of customs houses for Paris, the project he called the Propylaea.

Leighton, Lauren G. Bk review: “Speculative Freemasonry and the Enlightenment: A Study of the Craft in London, Paris, Prague, and Vienna by William R. Weisberger.” The Slavonic and East European Review:Jul 1995 73:3:546f.

Levitt, Jack R. “The Great Masonic Odyssey: Birth of a Democracy: Freemasonry’s Gift to the World.” Education Fall 1993, 114:1:8f.

Lewis, Douglas.Freemasonic Imagery in a Venetian Fresco Cycle of 1716.” In: Ingrid Merkel and Allen G. Debus. Hermeticism and the Renaissance: Intellectual History and the Occult in Early Modern Europe. Washington: Folger Shakespeare Lib.; London : Associated University Presses, 1988; 438p.: 366-399.

Librett, Jeffrey S. “Destabilizing Typologies: Jewish Works, Christian Faith, and the Passage from Orient to Occident in G.E. Lessing’s Ernst und Falk: Gespräche für Freimäurer.” Germanic Review Fall 2003, 78:301-319. Examines Jewish-Christian relations in postmedieval contexts through oriental-occidental discourses in the book “Ernst und Falk: Gespräche für Freimäurer,” by G. E. Lessing. Discussion of the history of freemasonry in the book; Attempts made to determine the essence of freemasonry; Relationship of freemasonry with the Orient.

Mahoney, L. J. Bk review: “Revolutionary Brotherhood.” Choice Nov 1996 34:3:524.

Martin, Alexander M. Bk review: Working the Rough Stone: Freemasonry and Society in Eighteenth-Century Russia by Douglas Smith. Slavic Review Summer2000, 59:454-455.

McConnell, Stuart. Bk review: “Revolutionary Brotherhood: Freemasonry and the Transformation of the American Social Order, 1730-1840 (Chapel Hill: Univ. North Carolina Press for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, VA, 1996, 421p.) by Steven C. Bullock.” Journal of Southern History November 1998, 64:731-732.

McKeown, Trevor W. “Freemasonry and Religion.” Journal of Religion & Psychical Research October 1999, 22:220-221. A summary is given on the relationship between religion and freemasonry.

Melzer, Ralf. Bk review: “In the Eye of a Hurricane: German Freemasonry in the Weimar Republic and the Third Reich.” Totalitarian Movements & Political Religions Autumn 2003, 4:113-133. Conditions that German Freemasons faced after Germany’s defeat in the First World War as they came under attack by nationalistic elements during the Weimar years, when the Masons were accused of being unpatriotic. These assaults occurred despite the fact that most German Masonic lodges were anti-Semitic and not places of liberalism or reform. The article then relates how the Fraternity came under further attack when Adolf Hitler became German Chancellor. Wishing to survive and play a role in the Third Reich, German Masonry tried to accommodate and conform with the Nazi Party’s racist ideology. In this, German Masonry was ultimately unsuccessful, and all but a few of its lodges were unable to withstand the pressure and were “voluntarily” dissolved or forcibly closed. The article then discusses anti-Masonic actions taken by Germany throughout Nazi-occupied Europe during the Second World War and how the Fraternity was brought back to Germany after the war’s end.

Meranze, Michael. Bk review: “A Band of Brothers?—Revolutionary Brotherhood: Freemasonry and the Transformation of the American Social Order, 1730-1840 by Steven C. Bullock.” Reviews in American History September 1997, 25:396-400.

Merrington, Peter. “A Staggered Orientalism: The Cape-to-Cairo Imaginary.” Poetics Today Summer 2001, 22:323-465. Focuses on the reconstruction of the cultural mix to address Cecil Rhodes’s vision of an all-British Cape-to-Cairo road, rail and telegraph route. Discussion on the neo-Hegelian tropology of pre-World War I Oxford idealist philosophy; Influence of Freemasonry in Britain and the British Empire at the turn of the nineteenth century; Impulses behind the concept of the Cape Town as Mediterranean.

Merrington, Peter. “Masques, Monuments, and Masons: The 1910 Pageant of the Union of South Africa.” Theatre Journal March 1997, 49:1-14. Focuses on the historical and theatrical pageant in Cape Town to celebrate the opening of the first Union parliament in South Africa on the year 1910. Reconciliation after the Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1902; Invented identities of nation-states according to sociologists; Role of British and Colonial Freemasonry.

Morris, Lori. “Treasure Trivia.” People 12/20/2004, 62:94. Presents trivia questions related to the motion picture National Treasure and American history.

Muraskin, William. “The Hidden Role of Fraternal Organizations in the Education of Black Adults: Prince Hall Freemasonry as a Case Study.” Adult Education, 1976 26:235-252. Discusses the role of Prince Hall Freemasonry, the Black branch of the international Freemasonic Order, as an “educator” in the areas of self-government, business administration, community leadership, middle-class values, and responsibilities of manhood. It is concluded that the fraternity has helped to (a) create an integrated self-image for the individual Black mason as an upstanding American citizen, (b) psychologically bind the member to White society by enabling him to identify with the Caucasian middle-class, (c) create a haven within the larger Black society where bourgeois Negroes have received protection from the life-style of the nonbourgeois Blacks who surround them, and (d) create a positive sense of community among its middle-class adherents, but estrange them from the mass of Black people.

Nance, Susan. “Moslem’s That Old Time Religion”: Moorish Science and the Meaning of Islam in 1920s Black Chicago (Illinois). M.A. thesis, Simon Fraser Univ., Canada, 1999. MAI, 39, no. 01 (1999): 74. This thesis examines the first known indigenous African-American Muslim movement, the Moorish Science Temple of America, and its prophet, Noble Drew Ali, as reflections and shapers of black perceptions of Islam in 1920s Chicago. Independent of proselytization by Muslims, Ali presented a system of beliefs drawn from American interpretations of Eastern cultures found in Black Spiritualism and mystical Freemasonry which he combined with his own radical conceptions of race and world history. Ali’s teachings were recognizably Islamic to interwar African Americans since he described his new religion as native to Africa, knowing “no colorline,” and affirming the divine essence within each believer. Indeed, Moorish Science catered to popular perceptions of Islam provided by books and magazines, oral tradition and prominent black newspapers such as the Chicago Defender. Ali framed his religion in the rituals and regalia of elite racial uplift movements and African-American fraternalism in order to distance himself from the street cultures associated with black Spiritualism and Chicago’s many independent religious entrepreneurs. Nonetheless, the movement attracted energetic, civic-minded blacks from every walk of life who expanded the movement and spread the prophet’s ideas throughout the Mid-West and South. This thesis analyzes the texts through which Noble Drew Ali articulated his revelation, contemporary press coverage of the movement, and the Moors’ own newspaper and organizational documents to conclude that Ali’s Islam was actually a form of black Spiritualism. Further, Ali’s real success was to present some truly radical ideas about history, race and spirituality within a religion which attracted the support of African Americans from the mainstream of black society.

Nelson, Dana D. “The Haunting of White Manhood: Poe, Fraternal Ritual, and Polygenesis.” American Literature September 1997, 69:515-347. Discusses the attitudes on race of Edgar Allan Poe in the 1800s, who has otherwise been known to be committed to “average racism.” Information on freemasonry in American colonies since the early 1700s; Details on fraternal rituals in that period; Detailed information on the story written by Poe which prompted the issue.

O’Rourke, Shane. Bk review: “Working the Rough Stone: Freemasonry and Society in Eighteenth Century Russia by Douglas Smith.” European History Quarterly July 2000, 30:458-460.

Okenfuss, Max J. Bk review: “Working the Rough Stone: Freemasonry and Society in Eighteenth-Century Russia by Douglas Smith.” Journal of Modern History March 2001, 73:221-222. Freemason “Douglas Smith’s account of Russian Freemasonry is the fullest available,” says Okenfuss. Yet Smith gave overblown view of the literacy level of the Russian populous.

Peterfreund, Stuart. “Blake, Freemasonry, and the Builder’s Task.” In: Peterfreund, Stuart. William Blake in a Newtonian World: Essays on Literature as Art and Science. Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 1998; 255p.: 58-84. William Blake (1757-1827).

Pionke, Albert D. “Authorized Secrecy: the Figure of Freemasonry, Carlyle’s [Thomas Carlyle, 1795-1881] Clothes Philosophy and an Alternative to Democracy.” In: Albert D. Pionke, Plots of Opportunity. Ohio State Univ. Press, 2004:1-21. Includes alchemy, theosophy; astrology, Freemasonry, Rosicrucians, and Daniel Leeds (1652-1720).

Prescott, Andrew. “Searching for Welsh Indians.” Aries 2004, 4:203-228. Examines the legend of Prince Madoc and the Welsh Indians. Impact of the legend on the relationship between Great Britain, France, Spain and the U.S.; Significance of the book “Madoc: The Making of A Myth,” by Gwyn A. Williams; Relationship of freemasonry to ancient pre-Christian religion.

Prescott, Andrew. “Stuart Freemasonry: Restoring the Temple of Vision?” Aries 2004, 4:171-184. Reviews the book “Restoring the Temple of Vision:Cabalistic Freemasonry and Stuart Culture,” by Marsha Keith Schuchard.

Raeff, Marc. Bk review: “Working the Rough Stone: Freemasonry and Society in Eighteenth-Century Russia by Douglas Smith.” American Historical Review June 2001, 106:1090-1091.

Ratcliffe, Donald J. “Revolutionary Brotherhood: Freemasonry and the Transformation of the American Social Order, 1730-1840.” History London Oct 1998. 83:272:653f.

Rich, Paul, and Guillermo De Los Reyes. “Freemasonry’s Educational Role.” American Behavioral Scientist June-July 1997, 40:957-968. Reports on the effects of freemasonry on Mexican society. Educational role of freemasonry; Question of motives, liabilities, and legitimacy; Freemasonry as a school for politics.

Rich, Paul, and Guillermo De Los Reyes. “The Nobles of the Shrine: Orientalist Fraternalism.” Journal of American Culture Winter 1998, 21:9-20. Presents information on the Shrine, a Masonic organization which originated in the Middle East. Historical background of the Shrine; How lodge leaders view their illegal existence in Saudi Arabia; Why masonry has not advanced in the Middle East.

Rich, Paul. “Female Freemasons: Gender, Democracy and Fraternalism.” Journal of American Culture Spring 1997, 20:105-111. Discusses the early involvement of women in voluntary associations such as Freemasonry. Substantial evidences that sustain the fact that women were involved in the very beginnings of Masonry; Information on the early initiations of members of the Masonry; Fraternal groups sustaining sense of community and contributing to democracy.

Rorabaugh, W. J. Bk review: “Revolutionary Brotherhood: Freemasonry and the Transformation of the American Social Order, 1730-1840 by Steven C. Bullock.” American Historical Review June 1997, 102:881-882.

Rutyna, Richard A., and Peter C. Stewart. The History of Freemasonry in Virginia. NY: Univ. Press of America, for the Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of Virginia, 1998. 561p.

Rydel, Christine A. “The Esoteric Tradition in Russian Romantic Literature: Decembrism and Freemasonry.” Slavic and East European Journal Summer 1996 40:2:375-422.

Schorn, Joel. “What is the Catholic view of Freemasonry?” U.S. Catholic 70:43-46, May2005. Explains the views of the Catholic Church on Freemasonry. Opportunities provided by Freemasonry to its members; Religious beliefs of Freemasons; Actions taken by the Vatican to condemn Freemasonry.

Schroeder, Steve. Bk review: “Fundamentalism & Freemasonry: The Southern Baptist Investigation of the Fraternal Order by Gary Leazer.” The Booklist Jun 1, 1995, 91:19-20:1696f.

Schuchard, Marsha Keith. “Response to Prescott’s Review.” Aries 2004, 4:184-203. Presents a response to Andrew Prescott’s review of the book “Restoring the Temple of Vision: Cabalistic Freemasonry and Stuart Culture.” Achievements of historian Margaret Jacob in Masonic history; Scholars who studied freemasonry in the eighteenth-century, including Auguste Viatte.

Schuchard, Marsha Keith. “Blake’s ‘Mr. Femality’: Freemasonry, Espionage, and the Double-Sexed.” In: Patricia B. Craddock and Carla H. Hay, eds. Studies in Eighteenth-Century Culture. Colleagues Press, 1992; 360p.: 51-71. Published for the American Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies by Colleagues Press. Sex role in literature and the work of William Blake (1757-1827).

Shulevitz, Judith. “Farrakhan’s Secrets.” New York Nov 6, 1995 28:44:24.

Simmel, Georg. “The Sociology of Secrecy and of Secret Societies.” American Journal of Sociology 11 (1906): 441-498.[1] Translated by Albion W. Small. Simmel wisely noted something so naturally apprehended by every human being and so totally ignored in all of the anti-Mason mud slung at Freemasonry secrecy; on 442, Simmel said, “Since one never can absolutely know another, as this would mean knowledge of every particular thought and feeling; since we must rather form a conception of a personal unity out of the fragments of another person in which alone he is accessible to us, the unity so formed necessarily depends upon that portion of the Other which our standpoint toward him permits us to see.”

Smith, Douglas. “Freemasonry and the Public in Eighteenth-Century Russia.” Eighteenth-Century Studies Fall 1995 29:1:25.

Smith, Nathan. Bk review: Working the Rough Stone: Freemasonry and Society in Eighteenth-Century Russia (DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois Univ. Press, 1999, 272p.) by Douglas Smith. Slavonica 2001, 7:52-53.

Snay, Mitchell. Bk review: “Lodge of the Double-Headed Eagle: Two Centuries of Scottish Rite Freemasonry in America’s Southern Jurisdiction by William L. Fox.” Journal of the Early Republic Spring 1998, 18:175-179.

Solomon, Maynard. “Beethoven, Freemasonry, and the Tagebuch of 1812-1818.” Beethoven Forum 2000, 8:101-147. Examines some of the free masonry implications of composer Ludwig van Beethoven’s Tegebuch of 1812 to 1818. Link of Beethoven to free masonry; Mason poets admired by Beethoven; Association of Beethoven with members of masonic orders; Document from Beethoven supporting his masonic references.

Steele, Tom. “The Role of Scientific Positivism in European Popular Educational Movements: the Case of France.” International Journal of Lifelong Education September 2002, 21:399-414. Scientific positivism was one of the most influential ideologies of progress in the early modern period and had a powerful impact on the formation of popular educational movements in the 19th century in Europe. This paper considers the form it took in France, probably the most sophisticated example, which itself influenced other European movements. It traces, briefly, the rise of positivism from Bacon through the Scottish Enlightenment philosophers to Auguste Comte and then considers how this movement found an educational vehicle in, firstly, the French Grand-Orient organization of freemasonry and then through the universités populaires. It is argued that the strength of the movement was in its resistance to authoritarian epistemologies, in particular clericalism, and in its commitment to learning based on individual experience and experimentation. In France, it becomes adopted by the Radical Party, led by Jules Ferry, as an official ideology for reforming education having first been widely diffused through Masonic educational organizations. It informs a “third way” politics opposed both to laissez faire capitalism and revolutionary Marxism offering an apparently “scientific” neutrality. The study demonstrates the importance of freemasonry as a vehicle for popular educational movements in the 19th century and the notions of class harmony it promoted, which underpinned the foundations of the newly emerging welfare state.

Stephens. S. “In Search of the Pointed Arch: Freemasonry and Thomas Hope’s ‘An Historical Essay on Architecture.’” The Journal of Architecture June 1996, 1:133-158.

Summers, Martin. “Diasporic Brotherhood: Freemasonry and the Transnational Production of Black Middle-Class Masculinity.” Gender & History November 2003, 15:550-575. This essay examines the relationship between two black Freemasons in the Gold Coast and New York in the 1930s. Drawing on the correspondence of D. K. Abadu Bentsi and Harry A. Williamson, this essay argues that fraternal voluntary associations operated as sites for the formation of a gendered diasporic identity. In doing so, it suggests that we need to complicate our understanding of diaspora by considering the ways in which the development of diasporic subjectivity and consciousness, as a dynamic process, is inextricably bound up in the formation of class and gender identities and the maintenance of class and gender boundaries. 

Traister, Barbara. “Restoring the Temple of Vision: Cabalistic Freemasonry and Stuart Culture (Book).” Renaissance Quarterly Spring 2004, 57:350-353. Bk review, Restoring the Temple of Vision: Cabalistic Freemasonry and Stuart Culture by Marsha Keith Schuchard.

Trompf, Garry W. Bk review: “The Hiram Key: Pharoahs, Freemasons and the Discovery of the Secret Scrolls of Jesus by Christopher Knight and Robert Lomas.” Aries, 2003, 3:114-117.

Tsapina, Olga. Bk review: “By the Banks of the Neva: Chapters from the Lives and Careers of the British in Eighteenth-Century Russia by Anthony G. Cross, and Working the Rough Stone: Freemasonry and Society in Eighteenth-Century Russia by Douglas Smith.” Eighteenth-Century Studies Winter 2000, 33:301-306.

Urban, Hugh B. “Elitism and Esotericism: Strategies of Secrecy and Power in South Indian Tantra and French Freemasonry.” Numen 1997, 44:1-38. Despite the proliferation of interest in the subjects of secrecy and esotericism throughout popular culture, media and entertainment, these phenomena have only recently begun to be treated seriously by historians of religions. In a comparative, cross-cultural analysis, and by looking in particular at its social and political implications, he compares two traditions — the Srïvidyä school of Indian Tantra, and the Rectified Scottish Rite of French Freemasonry — juxtaposing and analogically relating them in order to shed new light on both. Contrary to many popular conceptions, he argues that esotericism is by no means primarily a “counter-cultural” or “subversive” phenomenon; rather, it is very often an elitist phenomenon, the province of highly educated, affluent and powerful intellectuals, who wish, not to undermine existing social structures, but rather subtly to reinforce them, or else to bend and reshape them according to their own interests. This essay examines three primary strategies employed by the Tantrics and Masons: 1) the creation of a new social space or private sphere, which promises “equality” and liberation for all classes, while at the same time constructing new and more rigid hierarchies; 2) a hermeneutical strategy, which appropriates the authority of traditional scriptures, while at the same time asserting the superiority of esoteric exegesis; 3) a ritual strategy, which creates a homology between the body of the initiate, the hierarchy of the cosmos and the hierarchy of the esoteric sect, inscribing the individual into the body of the order, and inscribing the order onto the human body.

Usitalo, Steven A. Bk review: “Working the Rough Stone: Freemasonry and Society in Eighteenth-Century Russia by Douglas Smith.” Slavic & East European Journal Summer 2000, 44:351-353.

Vaughn, William Preston. “The Reverend Charles G. Finney and the Post Civil War Antimasonic Crusade.” Social Science Journal 27:209-222, 1990. Examines the involvement of American evangelist Charles Grandison Finney in the post-Civil War Antimasonic crusade led by the Reverend Jonathan Blanchard. Finney’s articles attacking Masonry; Failure of Finney and other Antimasons to stem the growth of fraternal organizations in the late 19th century; Finney’s first hand experience with secret societies.

Versluis, Arthur. “Western Esotericism and Consciousness.” Journal of Consciousness Studies 2000 7: 20-33. On relatively new field of religious studies of Western esotericism, including alchemy, various magical traditions, Christian theosophy, Rosicrucianism and other secret or semi-secret groups—Western esoteric traditions rely on the power of the written word or image in order to convey and perhaps generate changes in consciousness. Thus Western esotericism tends to see and use language in a fundamentally different way—here language is used not for conventional designation in a subject object relationship, but in order to transmute consciousness or to point towards the transmutation of consciousness through what Versluis terms hieroeidetic knowledge. Be it Kabbalism or alchemy, troubadours and chivalry, the Lullian art, magic or theosophy, pansophy or esoteric Rosicrucianism or Freemasonry, one finds a consistently recurrent theme of transmuting consciousness, which is to say, of awakening latent, profound connections between humanity, nature and the divine, and of restoring a paradisal union between them. Hieroeidetic knowledge can be understood in terms of a shift from an objectifying view of language based on self and other to a view of language as revelatory, as a via positiva leading towards transcendence of self other divisions. It is here, in their emphasis on the initiatory, hieroeidetic power of language to reveal what transcends language, that the unique contribution of Western esoteric traditions to consciousness studies may well be found.

Versluis, Arthur. “Esotericism in Early America.” In Versluis, Arthur. The Esoteric Origins of the American Renaissance. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2001; 234p.: 21-52.

Wallace, Mark. Bk review: “Freemasonry On Both Sides Of The Atlantic: Essays Concerning the Craft in the British Isles, Europe, the United States and Mexico edited by R. William Weisberger, Wallace McLeod, and S. Brent Morris.” Scottish Historical Review October 2004, 83:262-263.

Wallace, Maurice O. “Are We Men?”: Prince Hall, Martin Delany, and the Masculine Ideal in Black Freemasonry, 1775-1865.” In: Wallace, Maurice O., Constructing the Black Masculine: Identity and Ideality in African American Men’s Literature and Culture, 1775-1995. Duke Univ. Press, 2002; 236p.: 53-81.

Weisberger, R William. Bk review: “Lodge of the Double-Headed Eagle: Two Centuries of Scottish Rite Freemasonry in America’s Southern Jurisdication.” Journal of the Early Republic Spring 1998 18:1:175-178.

Weisberger, R. William. “Freemasonry as a Source of Jewish Civic Rights in Late Eighteenth-Century Vienna and Philadelphia: a Study in Atlantic History.” East European Quarterly Winter 2000, 34:419-436. Examines and contrasts the thinking and activities of Viennese Josephinian Masonic enlighteners and Philadelphia republican Masons concerning Jewish civic rights during the late eighteenth century. Background on the enlightenment reform program of Joseph II of Austria and the Jews of Vienna; Civil status of colonial Jews and high degree masonry in eighteenth-century America. In part of his conclusion, Weisberger noted: “The ratification of the Federal Constitution revealed much about the successes of Jews who belonged to the Lodge of Perfection. Having used a bottom-up approach, these Masons assisted in achieving civic emancipation and perceived George Washington as a modern Moses and as a protector of Jewish civic rights. Either in speeches or in letters, the president of the new federal republic proved to be quite supportive of American Jewry. He even used deistic and Masonic language in responding to its leaders.”

Weisberger, R. William. Bk review: “Revolutionary Brotherhood: Freemasonry and the Transformation of the American Social Order, 1730-1840 by Steven C. Bullock.” Journal of Social History Winter 1998, 32:455-457. Weisberger said, “Bullock well demonstrates also that Masonry was intimately involved in attempting to create an enlightened republic and a mercantile society in America between 1790 and 1825 and that as a result of the Antimasonic movement, the Craft was seriously discredited in many regions of the North between 1826 and 1840.”

Weisberger, William. Bk review: “Living the Enlightenment: Freemasonry and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Europe by Margaret C. Jacob.” Journal of Social History Fall 1994 28:1:209f.

Whisenhunt, William B. Bk review: Working the Rough Stone: Freemasonry and Society in Eighteenth-Century Russia by Douglas Smith. Canadian Slavonic Papers September 2000, 42:418-420.

Wilkinson, Albert, Jr. “The Masonic Mysteries at Rosslyn.” British Heritage March 2005, 26:8. Wilkinson of Sky Valley, GA, wrote, “The portrait of Sir William St. Clair shows him with the Apron of Freemasonry on and the blue ribbon across his chest with the open Compasses of Freemasonry at the end, presumably as Patron and Protector of Freemasons of Scotland, to which office he was appointed by James II of Scotland in 1441. The Apprentice Pillar and the Master’s Pillar are Masonic symbols, as is the figure with a large rope or ‘cabletow’ wrapped around his body.” He suggests as well that the chapel may have been spared during the sacking of Rosslyn Castle because Oliver Cromwell was a Freemason. Thanks for sharing the information, Albert, and providing a very plausible explanation for Rosslyn Chapel’s Civil War reprieve.

Wilson, John. “Voluntary Associations and Civil Religion: The Case of Freemasonry.” Review of Religious Research 22:2:125-136, December 1980.

Woodbury, Roger W. Bk review: “Valley of the Craftsmen, A Pictorial History: Scottish Rite Freemasonry in America’s Southern Jurisdiction, 1801-2001,” edited by William L. Fox. July 2002, 79:402-403.

York, Neil L. “Freemasons and the American Revolution.” The Historian, Winter 1993 55:2:315-f. Connections between the Freemasons and the American Revolutionary War are discussed, as some historians and writers because some notable leaders of the Revolution, including George Washington and Benjamin Franklin, were members. York says, “A half-century ago, some historians connected Freemasonry with American independence because a few leaders of the Revolutionary generation—most notably Benjamin Franklin and George Washington—were Freemasons. Bernard Fay, a French historian who exposed Masons to the Nazis in occupied France during World War H, made emphatic claims for Freemasonry’s importance to eighteenth-century revolutionary movements in France and the American colonies. Fay saw Freemasonry as the “main instigator of the intellectual revolution” of that age and “the spiritual father of its political revolutions.” According to Fay, Freemasons engendered among “a limited but very prominent class of people a feeling of American unity without which American liberty could not have developed-without which there would have been no United States.”(1) … “Fay relied heavily on one Masonic writer in the United States, Sidney Morse, for his conclusions about Revolutionary America. Morse was convinced that “Masonry brought together in secret and trustful conference the patriot leaders” who led their country in a “fight for freedom.” Morse saw Freemasons everywhere he looked: they sank the revenue schooner Gaspee in 1772; they orchestrated the Boston Tea Party a year and a half later; and they dominated committees of correspondence, committees of safety, provincial conventions, and the Continental Congress. Based only on hearsay, Morse wrote that “Washington, according to La Fayette, it is said, never willingly gave independent command to officers who were not Freemasons.” Morse followed in the footsteps of other patriotic Masons. For example, a zealous Masonic orator had eulogized Washington soon after his death: “A single institution [Masonry] brought men to the level of equality; he wished to understand its principles, he wished to become one of its members. His soul expanded with the pure flame of charity; and, I have the pride...”

Zitser, Ernest A. Bk review: “Working the Rough Stone: Freemasonry and Society in Eighteenth-Century Russia by Douglas Smith.” H-Net Reviews in the Humanities & Social Sciences January 2000.




See Character Counts—Freemasonry in Christianity &
in Our Founding Fathers’ Original Intent Slays the Anti-Mason Frankenstein







[1] See it on-line at:, Dept. Sociology, Brock Univ., St. Catherines, Canada. Public Domain Text. See for impressive list of on-line sociology docs.