Little Bibliography in 8 Categories a Little Annotated

See Character Counts—Freemasonry in Christianity &
in Our Founding Fathers’ Original Intent Slays the Anti-Mason Frankenstein

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Intro to Little Bibliography = Intro & TOP Shelf

1. TOP Shelf Freemasonry References & Couple of Others


2. List of Bibliography Compilations


3. Main Freemasonry Bibliography


3.a. Books on Freemasonry — 463 Authors of 931 Books

3.b. Ph.D. Dissertations on Freemasonry — 58 Authors


3.c. Pro Articles on Freemasonry — 137 Articles, w 50 Bk Rws


3.d. Foreign Books on Freemasonry — 226 Authors of 265 Books


3.e. News Articles 1985-2005 in Chrono Order — 226 Articles


4. Historical-General References — 374 Authors in 720 Books


5. Baptist References


6. Character Counts Bibliography — 251 Authors in 295 Books


7. Great Hoax—Léo Taxil’s Luciferian Doctrine

a. General Info, Web Sties, and One Excellent Refutation

b. Publications Still Duped by Taxil’s Hoax

c. Publications Exposing Taxil’s Hoax


8. Anti-Mason Bibliography — 100 Authors


3.b. Ph.D. Dissertations on Freemasonry — 58 Authors

Azelvandre, John Paul. Forging the Bonds of Sympathy: Spirituality, Individualism and Empiricism in the Ecological Thought of Liberty Hyde Bailey and Its Implications for Environmental Education. Ph.D. diss., New York Univ., 2001. DAI, 62, no. 07A (2001): 2370. Through an examination of the life and work of Liberty Hyde Bailey, this study examines the possibility of an alternate ontological and epistemological foundation for environmental ethics and education that can adequately address the twin concerns of the status of the individual and of the social or biological whole of which the individual is a part. The thesis presented in this study is that a holistic approach that is conceived in terms of monistic idealism will not serve as well as a pluralistic approach that recognizes distinct individuals causally interconnected to form an ecological whole. The term “spirituality” is proposed as indicative of the mode of connection between individuals and wholes conceived in a pluralistic rather than monistic sense. Beginning with a critique of modern environmental philosophy as primarily oriented toward a holistic or monistic ontology, the study proceeds to an intellectual biography of Liberty Hyde Bailey (1858–1954), an important early thinker in environmental ethics and environmental education. The analysis of Bailey’s life and work reveals his indebtedness both to Darwinian science, to certain strands of eighteenth century thought passed on through the agency of Freemasonry and to the liberal Protestant Christianity of the late 19th century. His mature philosophy was strongly individualistic, empirical and spiritual, where the “spiritual” is the mode of connection between self and other. Positive connections are drawn between Bailey’s contemporaries John Dewey and Alfred North Whitehead, bolstering claims that the distinctly American philosophy exhibited by all three thinkers has important ramifications for environmental philosophy today. Recommendations for environmental ethics and environmental education for the twenty-first century conclude the study.

Bell, David Lawrence. Edgar Cayce’s Bookshelf: The Source Question in the “Sleeping Prophets” Spiritual Teachings. Ph.D. diss., California Institute of Intregral Studies, 1998. DAI, 59, no. 06A, (1998): 2070. One of the New Age movement’ s most revered authorities, Edgar Cayce (1877-1945) is remembered primarily for his trance-channeled teachings on such subjects as astrology, reincarnation, Atlantis, the untold life of Jesus, and psychic experience. This work attempts to trace Cayce’s most distinctive spiritual teachings to other turn-of-the-century books and movements to which he could have been exposed. Probable sources include the Disciples of Christ, Freemasonry, Spiritualism, Theosophy, New Thought, and alternative medicine. Between 1890 and 1930 all but the first of these fed into a thriving alternative religious subculture roughly analogous to the New Age movement of our own era, and Cayce was one of a number of similar syncretic figures from this period. This approach is somewhat controversial within Caycean circles, since Cayce himself explicitly denied authorship of the psychic readings which he dictated. Accordingly, Cayce writers have portrayed their subject as a simple, uneducated man who read the Bible, but not occult or medical literature. Parallels between the Cayce readings and such literature are typically treated as independent confirmations of Cayce’s ideas, rather than indications of any historical relationship. In this light it is surely relevant that nearly all the published Cayce literature has been in some sense sponsored by the main Cayce organization, the Association for Research and Enlightenment (ARE). A chapter is therefore devoted to examining the history and nature of the ARE in order to determine why so little attention has been given to the “source question.” Various facets of the ARE lead that organization to resemble a church or religion, a research society, a small-group support organization similar to Alcoholics Anonymous, an alternative health-care provider, or a business consortium. Each of these models suggests a different set of priorities with respect to the critical study of Cayce, most of which are unfavorable to the source question.

Bullock, Steven Conrad. The Ancient and Honorable Society: Freemasonry in America, 1730-1830. Ph.D. diss., Brown Univ., 1986. DAI, 47, no. 05A, (1986): 1856. See Bullock’s Revolutionary Brotherhood: Freemasonry and the Transformation of the American Social Order, 1730-1840. (Published for the Omohundro Institute of Early ... History and Culture, Williamsburg, Virginia; University of North Carolina Press, 1998, 442p.). This study traces the history of the first and most important American fraternal society. I attempt to integrate the concerns of Intellectual History with those of social history--bringing together, for example, the course of the American Enlightenment and the rise of artisans in the Revolution--against a broad background of economic change. My work involves the study of social composition and the analysis of ritual and social display, as well as examinations of concepts of honor, social hierarchy, the nature of public and private activities, and cultural networks. Freemasonry’s importance lies, I argue, not simply in its considerable intrinsic interest, but in its ability to shed new light on the transformation of American society and culture during the years between 1730 and 1830. Beginning as a society of Anglicizing urban elites who used Masonry to assert Enlightenment values of gentility, fraternity, and honor, Freemasonry during the Revolutionary years spread outward into the provinces and downward into new social groups. By 1790, a transformed organization embodied the new values of Republicanism: religion without superstition; virtue, science, and reason; and hierarchy without unnatural aristocracy. Masonry spoke directly to the needs of those in the forefront of social and economic change—men such as DeWitt Clinton and Charles G. Finney—offering status and affective bonds in the midst of an increasingly mobile and competitive world. Embodying as it did the central concerns of Republicanism, Freemasonry also expressed its deepest contradictions. The enormous geographic and economic expansion of the post-Revolutionary era relentlessly exposed these tensions, stimulating definitions of religion, politics, and society which made Freemasonry seem dangerous and sinister. In the mid-1820’s, new Evangelical and Democratic ideologies combined to stigmatize the fraternity as anti-religious and, ironically, anti-republican. My study ends with the collapse of Freemasonry in both the North and the South.

Burke, Janet Mackay. Sociability, Friendship and the Enlightenment Among Women Freemasons in Eighteenth-Century France. Ph.D. diss., Arizona State Univ., 1986. DAI, 47, no. 11A, (1986): 4168. Women’s Freemasonry was part of a dramatic rise in the number of eighteenth-century organizations involving upper-class French women. Formed in the 1740’s despite a rigid Masonic proscription against female members, these so-called lodges of adoption were actually mixed-gender secret societies, each affiliated with a regular lodge of the Masonic brotherhood. The lodges of adoption were recognized as legitimate Masonic organizations in 1774 by the Grand Orient, governing body of French Freemasonry. Within the structure of the lodges of adoption women Freemasons experienced strong bonds of friendship, especially with their Masonic sisters. Theirs was friendship in the Enlightenment sense of Fraternity, a friendship based on communal dedication to virtue. This new female sociability was formed during intense initiation rituals leading from one degree, or level of knowledge, to another. Powerful symbols, carefully presented words of knowledge, secret signs and passwords and strong oaths combined to lead a candidate from one level of consciousness to another as she ascended the ladder of degrees. Probably as a result of the increasing strength of the sisterhood bonds, women began to amass power within their lodges. Particularly during the two decades preceding the Revolution, women led rituals, held the more active lodge offices and made major decisions for their organization. A budding feminism began to enter lodge rituals, a uniquely eighteenth-century feminism based on the Enlightenment concepts of Liberty and Equality. It was through their friendship, a dedication to charitable works and this incipient feminism that women Freemasons were able to partake of the intellectual currents of the Enlightenment that was so much a part of the world around them.

Campos, Michelle Ursula. A “Shared Homeland” and Its Boundaries: Empire, Citizenship and the Origins of Sectarianism in Late Ottoman Palestine, 1908-1913. Ph.D. diss., Stanford Univ., 2003. DAI, 64, no. 09A (2003): 3444. This dissertation explores the impact of the July 1908 Young Turk revolution on the social and political landscape of late Ottoman Palestine. Using the historical Judeo-Spanish, Hebrew, and Arabic press as well as extensive archival and memoir material, it examines the ways in which urban, literate segments of the Palestinian population responded to and reshaped the revolution, seizing a redefined role in the Ottoman body politic. The revolution came to have very specific local meanings in Palestine, all of which took shape and were expressed in the emergent Ottoman Palestinian public sphere. The dissertation develops the notion of “civic Ottomanism,” which was both a new practice of citizenship and political participation as well as an expression of the attempt to overturn ethnic and religious boundaries to forge a universal Ottoman people-nation. This civic Ottomanism was built up by the middle-class and their various institutions, including the Chambers of Commerce, Freemasonry lodges, and the multi-lingual press. It was expressed beyond the level of discourse in the material sphere as well, namely in the boycott of Austria-Hungary, the 1908 parliamentary elections, and various civic projects and joint commercial ventures. And yet, “Ottomanism” was porous rather than rigid, fluid rather than fully formed. As a result, it was characterized by dialectical tensions between secularism and Islamism, universalism and sectarianism, democracy and authoritarianism. Above all, the central tension in this study is that between universalism and particularism, which in the charged climate of the revolutionary period took on the form of inter-communal rivalry and political sectarianism. Through an examination of the multi-lingual press as well as a case study of the relationship between Ottomanism and Zionism among the Sephardi Jewish community, this dissertation depicts the aspiration of a certain segment of the population to a civic Ottomanism as well as the process through which competing ideologies and structural limitations played their own role in the changing public arena. Ultimately, this work challenges the notion of inherent or inevitable nationalism in Palestine, and instead casts a fresh lens on the process by which imperial, communal, and ethnic commitments were articulated, undermined, and reconstructed in late Ottoman Palestine.

Carter, James D. Freemasonry in Texas: Background, History, and Influence to 1846. Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Texas, Austin, 1954. ADD, W1954, (1954): 0236.

Cauti, Camille. The Revolt of the Soul: Catholic Conversion among 1890s London Aesthetes (England, Oscar Wilde, Ernest Dowson, John Gray, Michael Field, William Butler Yeats). Ph.D. diss., Columbia Univ., 2003. DAI, 63, no. 12A (2003): 4320. This dissertation explores the often critically neglected Roman Catholic conversion epidemic that swept through London’s 1890s avant-garde—followers of the Aesthetic Movement who synthesized French Symbolism and Decadence with native English Pre-Raphaelitism and Celtic Twilight mythos. I examine the circumstances and writings (primarily poetry) of selected converts—Oscar Wilde, Ernest Dowson, John Gray, and the two writers (Katherine Bradley and Edith Cooper) who shared the pseudonym Michael Field. To complement and contextualize this phenomenon, I also discuss the related contemporary quest for esoteric mysticism as embodied in William Butler Yeats, himself not a convert to Catholicism but an indefatigable spiritual quester and commentator on the religion in an apocalyptic short-story trilogy from The Secret Rose. As its title (taken from Yeats) suggests, this dissertation posits Catholic conversion in 1890s London as a subversive act; in exploring the seemingly paradoxical notion of subversive orthodoxy, however, the negative capability that permits the productive irreconciliation of Catholicism’s own seeming paradoxes becomes of paramount importance. Although all part of the same creative milieu, each figure converted for different reasons, yet the writers’ often heterodox subject matter and personal behavior—expressed variously via feminism, homosexuality, pedophilic eroticism, incest, or substance abuse—would seem to clash with such an authoritative, orthodox institution. After an introduction that provides background on the status of Roman and Anglo-Catholicism in late Victorian society and popular imagination (which simultaneously equated Catholic conversion with an essential feminization and demonization), I include a prelude on Wilde’s deathbed conversion and lifelong flirtation with Catholicism, and his ironic reinventions of Gospel narratives. My first chapter focuses on Dowson’s “spiritually redeeming” attraction to female children, the second on the once-archetypal homoerotic dandy Gray’s journey to the priesthood and his Decadent Pre-Raphaelitism. Bradley and Cooper’s incestuous lesbian relationship influenced their Catholic mind-set, which valorized suffering and produced poems voicing and celebrating New Testament women’s perspectives. The final chapter, on Yeats, aligns Freemasonry as a parallel yet socially sanctioned ritualistic operation, and contemporary interest in occult mysticism as a response to Catholicism’s exoteric mysticism.

Davis, Matthew Reid. Nineteenth-Century Rhetorics of American Brotherhood. Ph.D. diss., Univ. Washington, 2000. DAI, 61, no. 11A (2000): 4384. Nineteenth-Century Rhetorics of American Brotherhood analyzes relationships centered in brotherhood—a heretofore-unexamined component of American literature and culture. Exploring brotherhood’s significance in both historical materials (the membership rolls and publications of secret fraternal organizations) and in literary works (by figures such as Frederick Douglass, Martin Delany, Louisa May Alcott, Thomas Dixon, Edward Bellamy, William Dean Howells, and others), my dissertation argues that relationships centered in brotherhood are crucial to American nationhood in the decades surrounding the Civil War. My introduction theorizes brotherhood as a continuum which extends from consanguineous (blood) models to purely voluntary ones (Freemasonry, the Ku Klux Klan, etc.); significantly, brotherhood’s complicated rhetorics allow for much confusion and conflation, such that voluntary fraternal associations are often given the imperative of blood and that blood brotherhoods—especially those that cross racial boundaries—are easily disavowed. My project begins with an examination of the abolitionist movement during its period of greatest agitation, surveys the changes in the social and political landscape wrought by the Civil War and Reconstruction, and concludes on the eve of a new century, at a time when the political landscape is marked by the apparent healing of the once-fractured Union and when the social landscape is dominated by the highest levels of participation by the nation’s men in secret fraternal organizations. The Civil War’s creation of a fractured national family results in particular rhetorics of brotherhood being used with increasing frequency in order both to heal this deeply divided family and, importantly, in order to demarcate further its boundaries in response to social transformations such as the emancipation of slaves, the enfranchisement of African Americans, and increasing industrialization—all of which radically enlarged or transformed the American family. Using theories first developed by Eve Sedgwick, Kaja Silverman, Robyn Wiegman, and others within gender studies, psychoanalysis, and literary studies, I argue that brotherhood exceeds these fields and requires new tools that recognize the spectrum of brotherly relations and analyze brotherhood’s rhetorics of inclusion versus its practices of exclusion.

Doney, Keith. Freemasonry in France During the Nazi Occupations and Its Rehabilitation after the End of the Second World War. Ph.D. diss., Aston Univ., UK, 1993. DAI, 57, no. 04C, (1993): 1110. This thesis examines the involvement of the French Freemasonry movement in the Resistance during the Occupation of France by the Germans 1939-1945, its relationship with the Vichy government and the effect the “Nouvelle Revolution” had on the lives of individual Masons. To set the scene and to put the role of Freemasonry into perspective in the life of France and the French political system, the origins of French Freemasonry are examined and explained. The main French Masonic obediences are discussed and the differences between them emphasised. The particular attributes of a Freemason are described and the ideals and ethos of the Order is discussed. From its earliest days, Freemasonry has often been persecuted by the Roman Catholic Church or by extreme Right-wing movements. The history of this persecution is reviewed and the reasons for its persistence is noted, with especial emphasis on the treatment of Freemasons under the fascist regimes of Italy and Germany. The fate of Freemasonry in countries under German control is also briefly examined. With the occupation of France by the Germans, the differences and similarities of the treatment of French and German Freemasons are discussed. The processes and legislation of this ban are closely examined and the part played by the Vichy government in the persecution of French Freemasonry is discussed. The effects of this persecution and the consequences for individuals are examined and the Freemason’s role in the emerging Resistance movement is reviewed. The contribution of many lodges to the Resistance movement is examined and the sacrifice of many Freemasons for their ideals is emphasised. The inevitable bitterness of the Liberation and the Epuration period is portrayed and the Masonic process of re-integration described and commented upon. The desire for unity between the different obediences, so cherished by Freemasons of all allegiances in the Resistance, was not to be. The conclusion reached, supported by the evidence of the thesis, is that French Freemasons were, in the main, persecuted not because they were Freemasons but because they were members of the Resistance. French Freemasons have much of which to be proud in their resistance, to an oppressor, as their rolls of honour prove.

Dreyer, Theunis Frederik Jocobus. Freemasonry as a Group In, Next To and Against the Church (Afrikaans Text). D.D. diss., Univ. of Pretoria, South Africa, 1983. DAI, 45, no. 08A, (1983): 2561. The church must pay attention to any movement which has the appearance of a religion, and ascertain whether it is in, next to or against the church. The matter becomes more pressing if some church members belong to it. Inherently to Freemasonry is its view of God. There are more striking resemblances to the sun cults than to Christianity. The universalistic tendencies since the Enlightenment is an important feature in Freemasonry and is occasionally found in the church. The Bible takes a unique and special place in the church. On the other hand in Freemasonry the Bible—or the holy book of any religion—is known as the Volume of the Sacred Law. It is only used for ritual purposes. Legends and rituals are indispensable in Freemasonry. They have a completely different meaning and content than the Biblical message, although they try to associate with the Bible. A clear indication that Freemasonry has its own unique religion comes out of the development of their own set of symbols. The lodge is supposed to refer to Solomon’s temple, yet it reminds one much more of the heathen sun temples. Freemasonry exerts a strong spiritual influence on its members. From joining, self-knowledge is of prime importance. With the accent on self-knowledge they try to bring about a change in the person. Writers sometimes compare initiation with rebirth to a new life. The person comes out of the dark into the light of a new life. The Christian only knows light, rebirth, new life, salvation through Jesus Christ. There are several factors which enhance the feeling of belonging to a group. Freemasonry enjoys greater freedom than the church in implementing these. The church, however, cannot give up principles to satisfy people. Yet the church has to take care not to alienate its members. Freemasonry boasts its tolerance and uses it as a technique to commend itself. The church is often compared to the so-called tolerance of the Eastern religions. No religion can be completely tolerant. Office-bearers and church members have to stick to the confession of the church based on the Bible.

Dumenil, Lynn. Brotherhood and Respectability: Freemasonry and American Culture, 1880-1930. Ph.D. diss., Univ. California, Berkeley, 1981. DAI, 42, no. 12A, (1981): 5220. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, organizational activity engulfed America. Charles and Mary Beard called the proliferation of women’s clubs, professional societies, civic groups, reform associations, and other organizations a “general mania.” A striking and ubiquitous form of organization was the secret fraternal society. Largely neglected by historians, these orders were immensely popular. Over 460 originated between 1880 and 1900 and in 1901, one observer estimated that more than five million Americans were in 600 orders. The most popular and prestigious secret society was the Ancient and Accepted Order of Freemasons. A white, male, primarily native, Protestant society, Masonry had long existed in America, but saw its greatest growth after the Civil War. In 1879, it claimed 500,000 members and had dozens of imitators. By 1925, it was over three million strong. This dissertation examines Masonry between 1880 and 1930, the period of its rise and decline as a prestigious organization in American society. In examining the ideology, structure, activities, and composition of Masonry, the dissertation addresses the specific problem of the sources of Masonic popularity, as well as the general issue of the function of voluntary associations in modern America. In addition, by analyzing the evolution of Masonry in its social context over a fifty year period, this study illuminates changing cultural and social patterns of late 19th and early 20th-century America.

Duregger, Nikolaus. Die Zauberfloete in Kritik und Literatur; trans. title: The ‘Magic Flute’ in Criticism and Literature (Schikaneder Emanuel, Austria). Ph.D. diss., Universitaet Innsbruck, Austria, 1990. DAI, 54, no. 02C, (1990): 0368. This work deals with the history of the reception of the Magic Flute and concentrates on the controversial libretto. Specific questions regarding the music are not considered, but the character of the Gesamtkunstwerk is always taken into consideration. In the history of criticism of the opera, the greatest mistake has always been in the comparison of the libretto with great works of literature. The history of the controversial reception of the work begins with its fantastic success in the German-speaking world, which in turn led to discussions about the text, condemning it as inconsistent and meaningless. Even today there is no agreement on its quality. Part two describes the exciting history of its interpretation. Freemasonry is considered in part three, which gives us the context for the interpretation of the Magic Flute offered in part four. There the consistency of the libretto will be proved. The Bruchtheorie and the question of authorship are also discussed. Part five deals with arrangements. The contents of part six are the various satires and parodies on the opera. There we see the opera as a means for criticism of politics and art. Part seven deals with Schikaneder’s sequel of the Magic Flute (Das Labyrinth oder der Kampf mit den Elementen). Part eight deals with the opera’s influence on Goethe, which is not limited to his own attempt at a sequel. Part nine looks at the relationship between the Magic Flute and Wagner’s Parsifal. The tenth and final part discusses the relationship between the opera and Die Frau ohne Schatten (Strauss/Hofmannsthal).

Ekhtiar, Rochelle Suzette. Fictions of Enlightenment: The Oriental Tale in Eighteenth-Century England (Prose). Ph.D. diss., Brandeis Univ., 1985. DAI, 46, no. 03A, (1985): 0705. Eighteenth-century Oriental fiction by English writers had a significant intellectual dimension that has generally been neglected. Most previous critics have viewed it as a precursor to Romanticism or a medium for moral didacticism, paying little attention to the genre as a vehicle for discourse about the issues of its own age. This study examines Oriental fiction in England in the context of the European Enlightenment, focusing on politics and moral and social education. Investigation of its connections with Enlightenment activity throughout Europe reveals numerous ideological concerns that it shared with other eighteenth-century prose forms. The European image of the Orient (limited here to the Middle East) was a complex construct of the European mind. Chapters One and Two analyze the sources of this image in religious controversy, Freemasonry, academic Orientalism, travel literature, classical treatment of the Orient, and authentic Oriental literature. Chapter Three examines the domestic Oriental narrative in relation to the broader literary scene, emphasizing its development as a response to specific Enlightenment needs. Addison’s use of tales to promote a new secular ideology had distinct political implications and set the tone for all the English fiction that followed. Lyttelton added an overt political dimension to his fiction by using it to point up Whig/Tory dissension and court intrigue. The long tales of the 1760’s by Hawkesworth, Johnson, Goldsmith, Langhorne, and Mrs. Sheridan reflect British political and commercial dominance and extol British constitutional monarchy. The decline of the genre in the 1780’s was caused by a combination of literary excesses and erosion of Enlightenment optimism. Beckford’s Vathek, a single brilliant exception to mediocrity, mirrors a Europe in turmoil. Chapter Four analyzes Oriental fiction as an expression of characteristic Enlightenment notions about kingship and government by tracing themes of philosopher-kings through representative English tales. The moral and political themes of most English Oriental tales confirm an existing order created by the Enlightenment principles of progress, knowledge, and reason, whereas French Oriental tales undermine institutionalized authority. In its affirmation of the status quo the English fiction diverges sharply from its French counterpart in direction and intention.

Fels, Anthony D. The Square and Compass: San Francisco’s Freemasons and American Religion, 1970-1900. Ph.D. diss., Stanford Univ., 1987. DAI, 48, no. 07A, (1987): 1871. The role played by fraternal organizations in the history of the United States has remained elusive, despite the great size and number of these institutions. This study argues that the Masonic brotherhood, the oldest and most important fraternal body, is best understood as a religious denomination within the Judeo-Christian tradition. The fraternity’s principal activities--providing members with sacred myths and rituals about the origins of their tradition, offering them ways of thinking and acting about ultimate questions concerning God and man, instructing them in moral behavior, and dispensing charity to those of its followers in need--were little different from those of Presbyterianism or Catholicism. More particularly, I show that late nineteenth-century Freemasonry blended two major Protestant traditions: the moderate, Christian Enlightenment and conservative, romantic ritualism. Together these elements posed a highly popular, Judeo-Protestant alternative to the nineteenth century’s evangelical mainstream, including the latter’s new, liberal, theological offshoot. The dissertation not only explores the private, religious practices that set Masons apart from evangelical and liberal Protestants, but it also describes how the brotherhood’s non-evangelical assumptions shaped the character of fraternity members’ moral outlook, charitable work, style of sociability, and relationship with Catholics. Drawing on ethnographic, quantitative, and literary/historical techniques of analysis, my research demonstrates that a significant religious expression in late nineteenth-century America occurred outside the churches and synagogues. It suggests that non-evangelical religion presented a stronger alternative to the tradition of the revival than is commonly believed, probably enjoying a position of dominance among males. Questions about the relationship between fraternal membership and other aspects of American history—for example, did fraternal groups mitigate class conflict? how did fraternal groups influence the nation’s political life?--can now be pursued in a manner parallel to the way scholars have examined, for example, the mutual influences of Methodism and class consciousness, or evangelicalism and the coming of the Civil War.

Fozdar, Vahid Jalil. Constructing the “Brother”: Freemasonry, Empire, and Nationalism in India, 1840-1925. Ph.D. diss., Univ. California, Berkeley, 2001. DAI, 63, no. 02A (2001): 716. This dissertation explores the role of Freemasonry in the development of modern India, by bolstering the British Empire in India, and by informing the Indian nationalist movement. Freemasonry was an ideal imperial “cult”: it did not require that one apostatize one’s religion, yet it was a quasi-religion with its own rituals and doctrines to which followers of diverse faiths, it was thought, could subscribe. This Masonic “religion” was a vehicle for both Enlightenment and Romantic thought. Also, Masonic antiquarian scholars sought to identify elements of Masonry in every religion, in order to establish an ancient basis of brotherhood. Various British colonial officials sought to employ this in fostering imperial unity and in engendering loyalty to the British royal family, which itself had close ties to Freemasonry. Freemasonry, however, could also serve the needs of Indian nationalists. The Indian national movement began as a demand by western-educated Indians to be given more responsibility in running the affairs of India. Many prominent early nationalists were Freemasons. Freemasonry contributed to Indian nationalism in four main ways. First, by serving with, and being increasingly accepted by, British Freemasons in the administrative work of the lodge, Indians found it difficult not to think that they should be accorded similar responsibilities by their European “brothers” (many of them government officials) in the management of the British Raj. Second, Indian Freemasons were often leaders in socio-religious reform movements in their respective communities, whether Hindu, Muslim, or Parsi, and the reformed religions they sought to construct looked much like Freemasonry—void of “superstition,” in conformity with science, and without “irrational” barriers, such as caste. Third, by bringing Indians of various communities together as “brothers,” Freemasonry allowed Indian Masons to imagine a pluralistic, secular Indian nation in which all could be equal citizens, much as they were in the lodge. Finally, the structure of Freemasonry, based as it is on constitutionalism and written laws, enabled many Indians to participate, within the lodge, in an environment characteristic of a liberal democracy even before they could do so in the larger society.

Franklin, N. V. P. Prolegomena to the Study of Rudolf Steiner’s Christian Teachings with Respect to the Masonic Tradition. Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Wales College of Cardiff, UK, 1989. DAI, 53, no. 02A, (1989): 0425. Available from UMI in association with The British Library. In the course of three integrated prolegomena our research undertakes to document and demonstrate the emergence of Rudolf Steiner’s Christian teachings from the tradition of high-grade Freemasonry in Europe. Prolegomena I addresses the current identity of the Anthroposophical Society as the community which bears Steiner’s Christian teachings, viewed from the standpoint of its internal structures and also from the perspective of the historical development of high-grade Freemasonry, 1723-1906. (Parts 1-5). Prolegomena II clarifies the three esoteric societies which constituted the actual Sitz im Leben of Steiner’s publications and lectures, 1902-14, the period which saw Steiner establish the permanent foundations of his Christian teachings. Part 6 uncovers the Masonic origins of nineteenth-century Theosophical Societies, and summarizes the latters’ evolution in Germany from 1884 to 1902. Part 7 closely examines the development of Steiner’s leadership of the Esoteric School in Germany, 1904-1914. Part 8 discusses Steiner’s activities within the irregular Masonic order, Mystica AEterna, from 1906 to 1914, in so far as documentary evidence is available for this deeply clandestine society. Prolegomena III establishes the fact that Steiner’s Christian teachings may be directly related to Masonic traditions of initiation, of which the archetype is the mystical death and raising of the 3$spcirc$ Master Mason. Part 9 emphasizes that the work of Rudolf Steiner will be perceived by the Anthroposophical community as a Christian mission. Part 10 explicates in detail the meditative discipline given by Steiner which leads to initiation and the mystical apprehension of an immanent Christ. Part 11 demonstrates that the foundations of Steiner’s Christian teachings, 1905-14, relating to the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ in history, exemplify in outline a range of concepts generally, and sometimes specifically proper to Freemasonry. A final review discusses the implications of these findings.

Froman, Howard William. Francesco Crispi and the Creation of Modern Italy. Ph.D. diss., Univ. Southern Mississippi, 1991. DAI, 52, no. 09A, (1991): 3397. The Italian Risorgimento, a movement of literary and cultural resurgence to restore the political unity of the Italian peninsula, produced several great statesman. Francesco Crispi was one of them. He played a substantial role in the unification of Italy and in the formation of the new nation in the decades that followed it. He changed his loyalty to long-held principles for what he perceived to be the best interests of his country. Thus he abandoned republicanism and then forsook republicanism for monarchism. In spite of his devotion to Freemasonry, and of a profound distrust of the Vatican, he tried to improve Church-State relations to protect the unity of Italy. Finally, he turned his back on Irredentism when it became apparent that this movement stood in the way of closer relations with Germany and Austria. He believed that membership in the Triple Alliance was essential to enhance his country’s prestige and to safeguard it from French threats against its unity and prestige. During his two ministries Crispi worked tirelessly to raise Italy to the ranks of the great powers. He certainly succeeded in making Italy a more prominent actor on the European stage. However, he saw those gains, along with his own political career, wasted because of an ill-conceived and disastrous colonial policy in Africa.

Galvin, Terrance Gerard. The Architecture of Joseph Michael Gandy (1771--1843) and Sir John Soane (1753--1837): An Exploration into the Masonic and Occult Imagination of the Late Enlightenment (England). Ph.D. diss., Univ. Pennsylvania, 2003. DAI, 64, no. 04A (2003): 1108. In examining select works of English architects Joseph Michael Gandy and Sir John Soane, this dissertation is intended to bring to light several important parallels between architectural theory and freemasonry during the late Enlightenment. Both architects developed architectural theories regarding the universal origins of architecture in an attempt to establish order as well as transcend the emerging historicism of the early nineteenth century. There are strong parallels between Soane’s use of architectural narrative and his discussion of architectural “model” in relation to Gandy’s understanding of “trans-historical” architecture. The primary textual sources discussed in this thesis include Soane’s Lectures on Architecture, delivered at the Royal Academy from 1809 to 1836, and Gandy’s unpublished treatise entitled the Art, Philosophy, and Science of Architecture, circa 1826. Soane’s Museum at Lincoln’s Inn Fields provides a three dimensional encyclopedia that is an embodiment of architectural vision and memory. I propose Soane’s Museum as parallel to Gandy’s architectural watercolor drawings, particularly his final series executed for “Comparative Architecture” from 1836 to 1838. While these works remain distinct, they are complementary examples of visual representation which rely upon architectural narrative through emblem and symbol. Another correspondence between Soane and Gandy involves Soane’s role as a Masonic architect and Gandy’s role as an occult visionary. As the result of a planned reconciliation between two groups in freemasonry—the “Antients” and the Moderns—Soane became the Grand Superintendent of Works for the United Grand Lodge of England in 1813. This led to Soane and Gandy’s shared visions for London’s Freemasons’ Hall, designed and built between 1813–30 (and subsequently demolished in 1863). I argue that this is the architectural project through which Soane and Gandy’s common interest in universal symbolism was made manifest, as evidenced by the design and presentation drawings held at the Soane Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum. In each of these collaborative works of architecture, Soane and Gandy displayed “Masonic and occult imagination.”

Goings, Carol P. The Philosophical Implications of Freemasonry in Thomas Mann’s “Der Zauberberg” (Bildungsroman). Ph.D. diss., New York Univ., 1996. DAI, 57, no. 09A, (1996): 3954. This research project investigates the philosophical implications of Freemasonry in Thomas Mann’s Zauberberg in view of the novel as a “Bildungsroman” placed in an era of social and scientific change, the turn-of-the-century. The novel can be considered “modern” for its attempt to reconcile the “classical theory” of science and philosophy with a new age of scientific “breakthroughs”, bridging the gap between the objective and the subjective. “Reality” could no longer be considered “container-like” or “measureable” to one standard, but had to incorporate “flux,” allowing the text to move beyond traditional bounds and “beyond realism.” Freemasonry”s influence on Mann’s text is integral to the following interpretation, as it presents a Masonic view which is both challenged and broadened by transition. Hans Castorp’s personal growth can, consequently, be regarded as a reflection of the growth and change society may take when faced with “crisis.”. Freemasonry acts as a stabilizing humanistic philosophy in a world of uncertainty and on the verge of WWI as it presents the “Platonic” predictable world view through the pedagoge Settennbrini. Chapter one discusses Mann”s representation of space and time, showing how measured and objective time and space can overlap with the subjective. Chapter two addresses the metaphor of “Stone,” as it is important to the Freemasons as “artisans in stone” as well as a “leitmotiv” for Mann. Images of stone are present in the text both on a physical as well as a meta-physical level as it embodies strength, fortitude, eternity, while not impervious to erosion and decay. The third chapter entitled “Music” develops connections between Mann and Masonic concepts of music—as well as addressing the negative, inharmonious, discordent and destructive elements of music. Finally the last chapter “Matter/Spirit” characterizes the attitude of Freemasonry in regard to separation of spirit and matter. Integrally bound up with this discussion is Hans’ facing of death and disease. There is a Masonic message of “hope” as an underlying philosophy of Mann”s novel, according to this reading, as Hans’ growth and enhanced humanism may better prepare men for a modern age.

Harland-Jacobs, Jessica Leigh. "The Essential Link": Freemasonry and British Imperialism, 1751-1918. Ph.D. diss., Duke Univ., 2000. Emerging in Britain during the seventeenth century, the Masonic brotherhood—which claimed to admit any free man, regardless of his religion, social status, political orientation, and race (provided he believed in the existence of a supreme being)—taught its members lessons of self-improvement, spirituality, and benevolence. During the eighteenth and nineteenth century, the fraternity suited itself remarkably well to the British Empire. It spread primarily through the activities of lodges in British Army regiments, which resulted in the development of a vast service network that was fundamentally global and masculine in nature. Looking at the British North Atlantic world between 1751 and 1918, this dissertation explores the reciprocal relationship between Freemasonry and imperialism. It asks how Freemasonry contributed to the building and consolidation of the British Empire and what the fraternity reflected about the broader imperial context. Having conducted research in Masonic and public archives on both sides of the Atlantic, I draw on a wide range of manuscript and published sources, including correspondence; private papers of prominent Freemasons; British government documents; proceedings of the English, Irish, Scottish, and Canadian grand lodges; and Masonic speeches, sermons, periodicals, pamphlets, and monographs. I deploy the methodology of world networks history to argue that cultural institutions played a critical role in British imperialism and that the imperial and metropolitan spheres were highly interconnected arenas. As it underwent the simultaneous processes of bureaucratization in the metropole and global expansion, Freemasonry experienced a transformation. Despite its consistent cosmopolitan claims, it changed from a relatively open institution that included men of various religions, social classes, political affiliations, and races to one that became increasingly Protestant, middle-class, loyalist, and white over time. From the mid-nineteenth century on, Freemasonry marched hand in hand with the British imperial state. Its network connected the metropolitan and colonial spheres, fostering what I describe as an imperialist identity among its members and becoming implicated in the increasingly racialized imperialism of the late nineteenth century. Like cosmopolitanism, imperialist identity is an example of an under-studied supra-national identity. Appreciating its role in imperialism is crucial for understanding the timing and location of national identity formation and the hegemonic function of cultural institutions in the imperial arena.

Hixson, Charles Robert III. Anti-Masonry in Western New York: A Social and Political Analysis. Univ. California, Los Angeles, 1983. DAI, 44, no. 05A, (1983): 1549. The subject of anti-Masonry, both as an antebellum reform movement and as a political party, has attracted historical attention, but yielded little serious investigation. Few scholars have attempted to trace the social bases of the crusade that developed into the nation’s first significant third party. This study examines the specific historical and geographic context in which the movement began in western New York, the characteristics of anti-Masonic Party supporters, their ideological formulation of American republicanism, and the course of the political party based on such interests and ideas. In order to illuminate these themes I have concentrated much of my attention on Chautaugua and Wayne counties in western New York. Rather than an egalitarian rural movement aimed against a Masonic or village aristocracy, anti-Masonry often proved strong in the more urban areas where the commercial transformation facilitated by the opening of the Erie Canal proved most intense. Instead of a party composed predominantly of backwoods farmers, nascent manufacturers and artisans concerned both with economic advancement and the preservation of order and morality represented a significant percentage of anti-Masonic activists, more so than in their Regency opposition. More often church members, anti-Masons also represented a majority in county temperance, Sabbath school and Bible societies. The anti-Masonic attack on Freemasonry reflected a coherent philosophy that emphasized the virtues of law, order, religion and morality. Anti-Masons accused lodges of practicing sacrilege, acting as a separate government, and favoring their own members in political contests and economic transactions during a period of widening suffrage and economic opportunity. As such Masonry presented a threat to Christianity and republican government that justified united action to abolish it. Founded to destroy Masonry the anti-Masonic Party widened its platform to champion Henry Clay’s American System. Although this practice, as well as brazen attempts by the party’s leadership to secure Masonic votes, alienated many enthusiastic crusaders, it also reflected the interests of men involved in production and the management of a labor force. The majority of New York’s anti-Masons became Whigs, while their concern with conspiracy led some to champion nativism and condemn the slave power.

Huber, Eva. Sozialstruktur der Wiener Freimaurer, 1780-1790; trans. title: Social Structure of the Viennese Freemasons, 1780-1790. Ph.D. diss., Universitaet Wien, Austria, 1991. UNIVERSITAET WIEN (AUSTRIA); 0671. The first part describes the different freemasonry systems. In 1742 the first lodge, which was named “Zu den drei Kanonen” was working in Vienna. The history from the different lodges between 1780 and 1790 follows. They were named: “Zur gekronten Hoffnung,” “Zum heiligen Joseph,” “Zu den drei Adlern und zum Palmbaum,” “Zu den drei Adlern,” “Zum Palmbaum,” “Zu den sieben Himmeln und zur Bestandigkeit,” “Zur wahren Eintracht,” “Zu den drei Feuern,” and “Zur Wohltatigkeit.” In the next chapter is described the foundation of the “Osterreichischen Landesloge” which is followed by the analysis of the “Freimaurerpatent” from Dec. 11th, 1785. The historical part ends with the description of the lodges between 1786 and 1790, named “Zur Wahrheit,” “Zur neugekronten Hoffnung,” “Zum heiligen Joseph,” and “Zur Liebe und Wahrheit,” and the dissolution of the lodges in the year 1793. First, the social structure of the lodges is analysed, followed by annual accounts of the social structure of the freemasons. Finally, the social structure of the freemasons is analysed by different points of view. Those points of view are: membership, native place, rank, religion, education and study, properties and the profession of the freemasons. The second part contains members of all Viennese Lodges between 1780 and 1790, including all the dates of membership and biographical dates.

Huss, Wayne Andrew. Pennsylvania Freemasonry: An Intellectual and Social Analysis, 1727-1826. Ph.D. diss., Temple Univ., 1985. DAI, 46, no. 03A, (1985): 0776. This dissertation examines Freemasonry in Pennsylvania from its origins until the outbreak of the anti-Masonic movement. This was an era of extensive growth for the Society and one which has been overlooked by previous non-Masonic students. Although providing a brief narrative of important Masonic events, this work is more concerned with the ideology and rhetoric of the Freemasons as exhibited in various public and private statements and with the membership of several sample lodges in order to ascertain what kinds of persons actually became Freemasons. It is the first modern and first objective study to be based upon the archival collections of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania in conjunction with non-Masonic sources. Although Pennsylvania Freemasonry in the colonial and early national periods was essentially a middle-class institution, it did accept men from all occupations, all social classes and all wealth levels. It allowed considerable variation of personal religious belief among its members and offered opportunity for leadership to a fair percentage of them. The ideology of the Fraternity was a product of the Enlightenment. It advocated brotherhood, equality, religious toleration, and civic responsibility and it maintained a strong adherence to the validity of the scientific, rational view of the world. The core of the ethics of Freemasonry was composed of the middle-class virtues of sobriety, thrift and industry. But the Masonic Fraternity changed over time, both in the composition of its membership and in its ideology. Instead of becoming more elitist and more latitudinarian as the anti-Masons themselves and some students of anti-Masonry have argued, Pennsylvania Freemasonry was actually becoming more egalitarian and more traditionally Protestant in outlook by the 1820’s. These are significant findings which should alter the way historians view the Society and should encourage other investigations into the Fraternity in order to obtain a fuller picture of its overall structure, beliefs and practices in the United States.

Johnson, Robert Edward. An Historical Analysis of the Sources of Religious Abertura’ in Brazil, 1822-1891. Ph.D. diss., Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1984. DAI, 45, no. 11A, (1984): 3376. This dissertation proposes to identify, examine, and synthesize the significant sources of Brazil’s religious abertura of 1891. Achieving this purpose will help correct mistaken concepts regarding how and why that abertura occurred. Chapter one reveals that a republican concept of government provided the political context in which religious abertura was conceived. Special attention is given in chapter two to the theological tensions which threatened the Catholic religious establishment and to how the Church responded to those tensions. Chapter three offers an analysis of two Enlightenment philosophies which opposed Brazil’s traditional religious contract. The most significant institution through which such philosophies found expression is presented in chapter four. This is followed by a study of the “Religious Question.” The final chapter presents a Protestant analysis of religious abertura in Brazil. This research utilized hundreds of sources. Among the most essential were: Jorge P. Howard, A Questao da Liberdade Religiosa na America Latina; Jose Carrato, Igreja, Iluminismo e Escolas Mineiras Coloniais; Eduardo Hoornaert, ed., Historia Geral da Igreja na America Latina; Joao Costa, Contribuicao a Historia das Ideias no Brasil; Mary Thornton, The Church and Freemasonry in Brazil; Margaret Jacob, The Radical Enlightenment; Antonio Villaca, Historia da Questao Religiosa no Brasil; Erasmo Braga, The Republic of Brazil: A Survey of the Religious Situation; and Boanerges Ribeiro, Protestantismo no Brasil Monarquico. Several contributions are hereby made to the field of Brazilian ecclesiastical history. First, it is demonstrated that religious abertura was primarily a result of Enlightenment political and philosophical influences. These influences were basically secular in nature. Protestantism is shown to be not so much a source of abertura as a safeguard against its retraction. The monarchy--traditionally cited as the major stimulus for abertura--is exposed as a preserver of the religious status quo. When the Catholic Church rejected that status quo in 1872, the foundation supporting traditional church-state relations was destroyed. Hence, political entities were left with little reason for preserving the nation’s troublesome established religion.

Karpiel, Frank Joseph. Mystic Ties of Brotherhood: Freemasonry, Royalty and Ritual in Hawai’i, 1843-1910. Ph.D. diss., Univ. Hawaii, 1998. DAI, 59, no. 12A, (1998): 4503. Masonry arrived in the Hawaiian Kingdom in 1843 with the formation of the French-sponsored Lodge Le Progres de l’Oceanie in Honolulu, which was joined in 1852 by Hawaiian Lodge under the auspices of California’s Grand Lodge. This work examines the fraternity’s growth and development along with its impact on the cultural and political life of the kingdom for the next six decades. The first lodges in the city played an important civic role, providing fellowship and charitable assistance to its members along with absorbing rituals. These rituals included secret initiations along with public processions and dedication ceremonies, each of which reinforced the “mystic ties of brotherhood” and signaled the status of the individual and the fraternity collectively. Each chapter of this work describes a different facet of Freemasonry’s history in Honolulu including its integrative social role in the ethnically divided city, its wide range of benevolent activities, and the involvement of Hawaiian royalty in the order. Three Hawaiian monarchs joined the Masons and participated in lodge meetings and festivities from the 1850s until the 1890s. Two of these kings, Kamehameha IV and Kalakaua, took leadership roles within their Masonic lodges as well as in the Scottish and York Rites, which helped to enhance their political power amid increasing American influence in the Islands. While doing so, they introduced other Hawaiians as candidates into the fraternity and appointed many Masonic brethren to high office. Hawaiian monarchs also appropriated Freemasonry’s organizational structure for several new organizations that they founded, the most significant of which was the Hale Naua, or Temple of Science. King David Kalakaua hoped to revitalize the ancient cultural traditions of Hawai’i with the aid of Masonic forms and in the process of doing so engendered surprising reactions from all quarters of the kingdom’s population. The syncretic process was a two-way street, however, and several fraternal groups associated with Masonry appropriated Hawaiian cultural motifs and inserted them in their rituals. This study thus illuminates the cross-cultural contests over history, culture and power that occurred in 19th century Hawai’i within the context of fraternalism.

Lawrence, Snezana, Geometry of Architecture and Freemasonry in 19th century England. Ph.D. diss., Open Univ., UK, 2002. DAI, 64, no. 01C (2002): 50. The thesis describes the process of the establishment of geometrical concepts as perceived through architectural education, theory and practice, and examines their ontological significance in the context of Freemasonry. The development of these geometrical concepts is studied using a two-fold approach: first, within the context of the relationship between Freemasonry and architecture, and second, within the context of the ritualistic, and secret, practices of Freemasonry. The establishment of the architectural profession and the associated search for a method of graphical communication, and the history of the founding of the first architectural schools in London are described, and the influence of Freemasonry on these developments is traced. The introduction of the technique of descriptive geometry, both in France and in England, is discussed and it is explained how in England the technique came to be replaced by other methods of graphical communication. The development of Freemasonry, its influence on the emerging architectural profession, and the eventual decline of the relationship between architecture and Freemasonry are examined. Two important periods are identified: 1717–1740 when the mythology of Freemasonry, and the link between architecture, Freemasonry and geometry were established; and 1790–1840 when Freemasonry played a vital part in the founding of the architectural profession and in developing its language of communication. The range of roles played by geometry in Freemasonry, including ritual geometry and the use of geometry for the operation of a lodge, is described. The thesis shows how interest in geometry which, from the early 18 th century, had been shared between architects, architectural educationalists, and Freemasons, had, by the late 19th century, become divided and separated into “architectural” and “masonic” geometry. It also reveals that while any direct influence from the concept of Sacred Geometry as a Masonic ideal appears to have become entirely dissipated by the end of the 19th century, an indirect influence has been maintained through a certain stratum of contemporary architectural theory in England.

Lipson, Dorothy Ann. Freemasonry in Connecticut, 1789-1835. Ph.D. diss., Univ. Connecticut, 1974. DAI, 35, no. 04A, (1974): 2180.

Markham, Don C. Freemasonry and the Churches. D.Min. diss., Colgate Rochester Divinity School, Bexley Crozer Theological Seminary, 1982. ADD, X1982, (1982):

Monod, Paul Kleber. For the King to Enjoy His Own Again: Jacobite Political Culture in England, 1688-1788. Ph. diss., Yale Univ., 1985. Jacobitism in England is better defined as a political culture--a collection of expressions and forms of behaviour--than as an ideology or a movement. Its adherents differed a great deal in to the Stuart cause, and their sentiments took a variety of forms. Jacobite propaganda expressed a concern with the moral decline of the English nation, supposedly caused by the violation of legitimate sovereignty. Only the restoration of a Stuart King, it was argued, could bring back justice to the polity. Jacobite poetry and pictorial propaganda—cartoons, medals, glassware, etc.—glorified the exiled Stuarts as divine representatives and “egetation gods” who would restore the ailing land, often using the imagery of popular culture. Popular Jacobitism was based upon the High Church sentiments unleashed by Sacheverell. The exclusion of the Tories by George I resulted in widespread rioting in favour of the Stuart claimant. Jacobite demonstrations survived until the 1770s as expressions of the desire for a High Church policy under a legitimate King. Popular concern with legitimacy was also voiced in numerous seditious words cases, although these must be handled carefully. The Stuart cause was supported by networks of agents, often ex-army officers and Irishmen, who cultivated their sentiments in their life-styles, and sometimes had connections with crime. Gentry Jacobitism concentrated on sociability, in sporting events, clubs and Freemasonry. For many gentry families, who raised and educated their children as Jacobites, support for the Stuarts was a way of life. This was particularly true in religious communities that identified closely with the Stuarts, like Roman Catholics and Nonjurors. The preferment system, however, hampered Jacobitism among the Anglican clergy. Rebellion was a terrifying option for Jacobites, and those who rebelled were generally representatives of social groups with peculiarly aggressive convictions, such as northern Roman Catholics and, in 1745, Manchester Tories. The importance of Jacobitism in England raises questions about the success of the settlement of 1688-9. It points to the continuing appeal of mystical ideas of kingship, and provides an example of a widespread political culture combining both radical and conservative views.

Moore, William D. Structures of Masculinity: Masonic Temples, Material Culture, and Ritual Gender Archetypes in New York State, 1870-1930. Ph.D. diss., Boston Univ., 1999. DAI, 60, no. 04A (1999): 1195. As a contribution towards a fuller understanding of American constructions of masculinity, this interdisciplinary study analyzes Masonic buildings and material culture in New York State between 1870 and 1930 using methodologies drawn from history, anthropology, art history, and architectural history. By examining edifices, published floor plans and designs, ceremonial objects and furniture, ritual texts, and discussions within the fraternal periodical press, this dissertation posits that Masonic spaces functioned as forums in which members of the fraternity created and promoted complex masculine identities. Understood by the initiated to be simulacrums of Solomon’s Temple in ancient Jerusalem, Masonic temples became ubiquitous across New York State during the years between 1870 and 1930. These structures contained distinct facilities designed and utilized by four dominant Masonic groups to inculcate their massive middle-class membership with understandings of archetypal models of male behavior. In these fraternal edifices, lodge rooms were utilized to teach the values of the heroic artisan; armories and drill halls in Knights Templar quarters cultivated the ideals of the righteous warrior; spaces identified as cathedrals served as forums in which members of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry were transformed into learned holy men; and auditoriums decorated in orientalist motifs hosted Shriners who taught initiates to behave as jesters or fools. Having been schooled in these distinct identities within the sacred confines of Masonic buildings, in the profane world this male membership integrated these four archetypes into a comprehensive performance of American masculinity.

Niinisto, Lauri Juhani. Paavo Susitaival 1896-1993: Aktivismi Elamanasenteena; Translated Title: Paavo Susitaival, 1896--1993: A Life Dedicated to Activism. Ph.D. diss., Helsingin Yliopisto, Finland, 1998. DAI, 61, no. 01C (1998): 73. The object of the research was to write a comprehensive biography of Lt. Col. Paavo Susitaival, who made an impact on the history of Finland especially as a soldier. Susitaival (until 1927 Sivén) was born in Helsinki on 9 February 1896. His father, V.O. Sivén M.D., was a proponent of Finnish independence (activist). After the outbreak of World War I, the activists organized the so-called Jaeger movement to enlist men for military training in Germany. Due to his upbringing, Susitaival had high patriotic ideals and worked as an activist in Finland. He organized the activities of the Civil Guards in Northern Karelia, and during the War of Independence in 1918 he commanded a company. After the war Susitaival remained in the army until 1921 when he was forced to resign after being involved in the preparations for an uprising against Soviet Russia in Eastern Karelia. In the early 1920s he organized a secret military academy course in Germany for a number of Finnish officers. He served in the Civil Guards until the Rebellion of Mäntsälä in 1932. In the 1930s Susitaival worked for the radical party the People’s Patriotic Movement (IKL) and was elected into the Parliament in 1939. Through the IKL he wanted to build a strong and unified Finland that was free of class conflicts and party interests. He became known as a pointed speaker and writer who criticized the government, warned of Soviet invasion and opposed freemasonry. During the Winter War 1939–1940 Susitaival commanded the Group Susi which took part in defeating the 163rd Division of the Red Army in Suomussalmi. This was the apex of Susitaival’s career.

O’Brien, Julianne. Secret Culture, Public Culture and a Secular Moral Order: Masonry and Antimasonry in Massachusetts (1826-1832), the Third French Republic (1884-1911), and the Russian Empire (1906-1910). Ph.D. diss., Univ. Massachusetts, 1998. DAI, 59, no. 10A, (1998): 3925. Modern Freemasonry emerged in the early eighteenth-century as part of European Enlightenment culture and gradually spread to the American continent. Masonry immediately aroused suspicion and continues to evoke controversy today. This study documents the development and maturation of lodge principles during the eighteenth century and then moves to specific periods of conflict between masons and anti-Masons in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It is a comparative history of Freemasonry and anti-Masonry in the Russian Empire just after the Revolution of 1905, in France during the early decades of the Third French Republic, and in Massachusetts, 1826-1832. During each of these periods, in each area, anti-Masons coalesced to close lodge doors. Anti-Masons achieved temporary successes in two of the three cases. This study explains why anti-Masonry emerged as a political phenomena common to early constitutional states in the context of expanding male, suffrage rights, and an emerging market economy. It frames a dialogue between masons and anti-Masons concerning politics, religion, science, economics and morality, through an analysis of Masonic and Masonic presses and published works. Debate between masons and anti-Masons centered around new definitions of the public sphere, the separation of Church and state, the role of the press, and proper public morality in an elective order.

Palfi, Agnes Gyorgyi. The Incommunicable Secret or the Encountered Experience: Mystery, Ritual, Freemasonry in 18th Century French Literature. Ph.D. diss., Univ. Arizona, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 03A (2001): 1046. The philosophers of the Enlightenment base their ideas on reason while attracting public attention on the futility of religion. The concept of the universe inherited from Antiquity is rejuvenated by contemporary sciences and, at first sight, we would think that nature governs the supernatural. A number of philosophical works, which would today be considered anthropological, deal with the customs and manners of different countries of the world, inevitably describing the religious cults and ceremonies practiced throughout the centuries. To what extent are these rituals kept, neglected or transformed in the century of Enlightenment? What is the connection between the ceremonies of Antiquity and the rituals practiced in the confined space of modern secret societies? Speculative Freemasonry, introduced to France at the beginning of the 18 th century, counts among its members a number of well-known philosophers. Do these enlightened minds, most of whom are adversaries of religion, practice the rituals based on sacred and incommunicable mysteries? These are some of the questions which this dissertation tries to answer in analyzing the philosophers (i.e. Voltaire, Dupuis, Boulanger, Démeunier) anthropological views; the origins of Freemasonry and the ancient sacred tradition; the founding murder and the sacrificial ritual; freemasonic and initiatory symbols in Ramsay’s Voyages of Cyrus (1727); Ramsay’s quest and the mysteries in his Discourse (1736); Casanova’s Icosameron (1788), a freemasonic utopia, hermetic allegory and symbolic fable. This dissertation attempts to demonstrate that the denial of the mystery and the supposed domination of the world by reason are only the well-known and visible aspect of the 18 th century.

Pazos Rodriguez, Anton M. La Iglesia en America en Visperas del Concilio Plenario Lationo Americano de 1899: Estudio Sobre La Documentacion Vaticana; trans. title: The Catholic Church in America on the Eve of the Plenary Council of Latin America, 1899: A Study of the Vatican Documents (Latin America). Ph.D. diss., Universidad de Navarra, Spain, 1992. DAI, 54, no. 04C, (1992): 1025. The Plenary Council of Latin America, convoked in Rome in 1899, marks the starting point for the union of the Latin American episcopate, so that the bishops in the future would have some criteria in common to guide them in their activities. Thus, the long period of ecclesiastical instability following Independence was brought to a close. Making use of the vast documentation to be found in the Vatican archives, especially the Archive degli Affari Ecclesiastici Straordinari and the Secret Archives, the author studies the religious situation of the different Latin American countries before the Plenary Council, between 1880 and 1990 approximately. He also makes use of local contemporary writings, such as memoirs, statistics, speeches, pastoral letters, travel journals, etc. Among other topics, the author analyses the instructions given by the Holy See to its diplomatic representatives, the structure of the Church in Latin America, the Catholic press, Catholic education, Catholic political parties, Protestant influences, Freemasonry, pagan sects, popular religious life, the state of the secular and religious clergy, seminaries, bishops and the aims of the Plenary Council. Special emphasis is placed on religious sociology, both as regards the people--morality, formation, devotions, etc.—and the clergy—morality, vocations, intellectual standards, domestic life.
The study offers a panorama of the weaknesses and strong points of the Catholic Church in the different republics, as well as an overall view of Latin American Catholicism. The work closes with a consideration of the preparation and unfolding of the sessions of the Plenary Council using unedited Vatican documents.

Pierce, Patricia Dawes. Deciphering Egypt: Four Studies in the American Sublime. Ph.D. diss., Yale Univ., 1980. DAI, 41, no. 05A, (1980): 2184. This dissertation explores the relationship between ancient Egypt and nineteenth-century America as it is revealed in four works of art: Thomas Cole’s The Architect’s Dream (1840), William Wetmore Story’s Cleopatra (1858), Elihu Vedder’s The Questioner of the Sphinx (1863), and The Washington Monument (1832-1885). Ancient Egypt held a particular fascination over the nineteenth-century American mind; the causes of this fascination as well as the cluster of Egyptian connotations which emerged in the creation of the four objects are considered. To Americans of this period Egypt was sublime. Based in Edmund Burke’s Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful (1757), the sublime is that emotion, based in terror, which man experiences when confronted with natural or manmade objects which are vast or obscure. Cole’s The Architect’s Dream is sublime in its perception of the American architect’s insignificance when faced with the remote past of architectural history, the monuments of ancient Egypt. Story’s Cleopatra achieves sublimity as she is an exemplar of the terrifying power of female sexuality. Vedder’s The Questioner of the Sphinx approaches the sublime in the fearful predicament of the figure in the painting, a man powerless to gain the answer to the question he asks of the Sphinx. The Washington Monument is the most visible document of Egyptian sublimity in America; built over a period of many years, it emerged as a vast and powerful work, terrifying in its towering sheerness. The meanings which emerge from the four works of art are based in a substratum of literary material, which may be seen as the subconscious in nineteenth-century America’s perception of Egypt. The Architect’s Dream relates to a body of contemporary architectural histories. The Cleopatra is accompanied by a poem “Cleopatra” composed by Story, and is examined in light of writings about the ancient queen which would have been accessible to the nineteenth-century viewer. The Questioner of the Sphinx relates to Egyptian travel literature of the period as well as to works by Emerson and Melville which employ the Sphinx as a central image. The Washington Monument completed as a giant obelisk only after many alternate plans were proposed, is closely connected to the architectural criticism generated by the plans for its completion as well as to the Egyptian-based mysteries of Freemasonry. The four Egyptian Revival works discussed emerge as monuments of the American Sublime. Each in its own way reveals an aspect of the nineteenth-century American subconscious; each illuminates, through its literary connections, the powerful ties between America and the mysteries of ancient Egypt.

Prusch, John Edward. Young Goethe’s Esoteric Poetry in the Context of His Other Writings and the Eighteenth Century (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Germany). Ph.D. diss., State Univ. New York, Albany, 1999. DAI, 60, no. 11A (1999): 4025. The purpose of the dissertation is to identify and interpret the images, symbols, and ideas Goethe consistently assimilated into his poetry from esoteric traditions and movements current in the Age of Enlightenment. Predominant among these traditions was the Hermetic tradition. In the 18th century it was realized in magic, mysticism, and medicine and enriched esoteric Freemasonry and Rosicrucianism with its perennial philosophy, in which Goethe participated. Goethe’s encounter with these traditions gave rise to several esoteric poems spanning the period of his life from the mid 1760s to just before his journey to Italy in 1786. Although Goethe’s other writings are frequently referred to, the central focus is on the poems themselves in chronological order. The first chapter reveals that Goethe’s earliest poem was conceived in an intellectual environment marked by the rising influence of the esoteric, double tradition of mysticism and Hermetism. The next, central chapter outlines Hermetism in the context of the European Enlightenment and then as it developed in Germany with its impact on Goethe. The esoteric implications of two patently Hermetic poems are examined. The third chapter presents the Hermetic view of magic reflected in Goethe’s youthful works and a single poem. The fourth chapter introduces mysticism in its natural alliance with Hermetism and analyses two mystical poems. The following, fifth chapter treats Goethe’s experiences with esoteric Freemasonry and a Masonically oriented poem. The final chapter considers the impact of Rosicrucianism and other closely related, esoteric currents on two more poems. This dissertation shows that the esoteric quality of Goethe’s pre-classical poetry shines through the exoteric doctrine when the imagery and themes of individuals poems are scrutinized against the background of their conception and the epoch in which they were created. The source for these poetic elements was the 18th century esoteric traditions of Hermetism, magic, mysticism, Freemasonry, and Rosicrucianism which acted for the greatest minds of the period from Leibniz and Lessing to Goethe himself as an enhancing foil behind the Age of Enlightenment. It inspired Goethe’s consistent, original effort to come to terms with esoteric doctrine in an otherwise enlightened century.

Rasoletti, Judith. Square and Compass: Freemasonry’s Tools for Constructing a Global Civil Society. Ph.D. diss., Florida International Univ., 2003. DAI, 64, no. 03A (2003): 1067. The concept of a global civil society is gaining greater acceptance among International Relations (IR) scholars, yet few studies exist that look at the role of fraternal organizations and their influence in constructing this realm. Freemasonry, one of the oldest fraternal orders, exerts a powerful influence on its membership through its symbolism, architecture and ritual, based on the tenets of mutual respect and tolerance towards all human beings. Such principles helped in creating a body of practices and institutions as early as the eighteenth century which two hundred years later were identified and conceptualized as global civil society. The allegations of anti-Masons and conspiracy theorists offer a continuous account of Masonry’s influence on the political scene since its modern founding in 1717 Great Britain. Conspiracy theorists portray the coming of a New World Order, orchestrated and directed by a secret hierarchy of Masons/Illuminati. Even though the lens of conspiracy theories paints a distorted view of reality, it does focus attention to Freemasonry’s activities as a major player in politics over the span of three centuries. Not only do such theories challenge the novelty of practices that make up a global civil society, but also the notion that it is an inclusive and growing sector that unites people across the globe. They also provide a valuable critique by pointing out the inconsistencies and discriminatory practices of Masonry as contrasted with the lofty ideals and aims for humanity. The Masonic influence in the social world is perceived as one that reflects the liberal worldview where the nation-state and power structures are in pursuit of human progress, or profit. The symbolism of Masonry, however, carries a message that can be characterized as representing republican ideals. Masonic symbolism and ritual create spaces of meaning where the contradictions between the ideals and the structures of inequality and elitism can be resolved. Freemasonry as a symbolic system proclaiming their inherent republican values does have a global reach. However, the effectiveness of these values is bounded by the constraints that are inherent in a liberal world dominated by nation-states.

Rich, Paul John. The Rule of Ritual in the Arabian Gulf, 1958-1947: The Influence of English Public Schools. Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Western Australia, Australia, 1989. DAI, 50, no. 05A, (1989): 1433. The dissertation examines how English public school ritualism influenced the development of the Gulf satraps of Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. The Gulf became a “British lake” because of the efforts of a handful of officers--the “Gulfites” of the Indian Political Service. A study of the sixty-six men who served there as IPS Residents and Agents between 1858 and 1947 indicates that their own schooling affected their policies in the Gulf. Attention is given to the Anglo-Indianization of the Gulf: the influence of the British administration on education in the shaikhdoms; the importance of ritual to the English public schools; the spread of public school ritualism throughout the Empire; the influence of freemasonry on the public schools and the Empire, and the implications of “morphic resonance” for history and government. Controversies about the social and intellectual status of various civil services are considered. Appendices provide a complete list of British officers serving in the Gulf, with many details about their lives. The public schools inculcated an ability to rule by ritual, an expertise that made generous use of ceremony, symbolism, and even freemasonry. Discussion of public school ritualism has implications for general debate by historians about Rupert Sheldrake’s theories about resonance and formative causality. The British attitude towards Arabia and the Middle East is examined and previous hypotheses about indirect rule in the Empire are challenged. British Imperialism was a ritual drama in which its administrators relived youthful school triumphs. The “uncrowned kings of the Gulf” displayed in their official persona and the exotic minutiae of their governing a loyalty to a hidden curriculum that had been absorbed at school. The consequences for Arab development were profound.

Roehr, Sabine Dagmar. Karl Leonhard Reinhold. The Fundamental Concepts and Principles of Ethics. Deliberations of Sound Common Sense for the Purpose of Evaluating Moral, Rightful, Political and Religious Matters: An English Translation Together with a Historical-Analytic Introduction. Ph.D. diss., Univ. Missouri, Columbia, 1990. DAI, 52, no. 03A, (1990): 0947. This work consists of three parts: an English translation of Karl Leonhard Reinhold’s Verhandlungen uber die Grundbegriffe und Grundsatze der Moralitat vom Standpunkt des gemeinen und gesunden Verstandes, zum Behufe der Beurtheilung der sittlichen, rechtlichen, politischen und religiosen Angelegenheiten, published in 1798; the original German text; and a historical-analytical introduction. The introduction provides a survey of the historical and philosophical background of the enlightenment and systematically discusses some of Reinhold’s concepts. The historical phenomenon of the enlightenment in its national contexts and, particularly, of the enlightenment in Germany give the necessary background for an evaluation of the Fundamental Concepts. In the book, Reinhold defines major concepts of that movement in a layman’s terms. The comparison of his concept of the enlightenment with Kant’s and Mendelssohn’s shows that Reinhold’s is Kantian, but has its origin in morality. Both Kant and Reinhold have similar ethical concepts, although Reinhold deviates from the older philosopher by distinguishing between practical reason and free will. This results in a new theory of freedom. Religious movements in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and, especially, religious controversies of the late eighteenth century were important for the development of the enlightenment. Reinhold participated in the “pantheism controversy,” in which the rational enlightenment clashed with the romantic counter-enlightenment. As a resolution to this conflict, Reinhold offers Kant’s concept of rational faith based on practical reason. Reinhold was a political moderate in the socio-political controversies in Germany and in the German reaction to the French revolution. His theoretical political concepts were based on his ethical ones. After a brief description of the phenomenon of Freemasonry and its connection to enlightenment, there follows a discussion of Reinhold’s involvement with that movement and his attempt to reform it--of which the Fundamental Concepts was the outgrowth. Reinhold’s theoretical philosophy is discussed in terms of eighteenth century-rationalism, German “popular philosopy,” Scottish Common Sense Philosophy, and Kant’s critical philosophy. With his own “Fundamental Philosophy,” Reinhold provided a systematic foundation for all philosophy and, in particular, for his version of popular philosophy.

Rubio, Christian A. The Influence of Freemasonry in Antonio Machado (Spanish Text). Ph.D. diss., Columbia Univ., 2004. DAI, 64, no. 10A (2004): 3704. Tracing the varying degrees of any influence in poetry can be a subjective undertaking. Critics often remain within the safety of specific parameters to avoid controversy when attempting to draw certain connections. Factors such as historical context dictate these parameters. As a result, some topics are left untouched. Such has been the case in the poetry of Antonio Machado. The goal of this dissertation, written in Spanish, is to link Machado’s work with Freemasonry. The influence he received will be discussed within the ideology and goals of the three degrees of Freemasonry: the Entered Neophyte, the Fellow Craft and the Master Mason. The connections will be presented on the basis of the maxim of Freemasonry: Freedom, Equality and Fraternity. Interpretations of this maxim have occurred in different Masonic Lodges and have also created separate schools of thought within the Masonic world. The impact of Krausism, one such school of thought, was imparted at the “Institución Libre de Enseñanza,” a school that Machado attended. It was here where Machado began to understand the importance of metaphysics. This process led him to acknowledge the presence of Other enabling him to understand love thus seeking perfection in humanity, the ultimate goal of the Freemasons.

Rupp, Robert O. Social Tension and Political Mobilization in Jacksonian Society: A Case Study of the Anti-Masonic Party in New York, Pennsylvania and Vermont, 1827-1840. Ph.D. diss., Syracuse Univ., 1983. DAI, 44, no. 10A, (1983): 3143. This study traces the history of the anti-Masonic Party in New York, Pennsylvania and Vermont. In each state America’s first third party displayed unexpected political strength. In New York where political anti-Masonry originated, the party dominated the western area of the state and mounted several strong gubernatorial campaigns between 1828 and 1832. In adjoining states, the party enjoyed more success. In Vermont, anti-Masons controlled state government from 1831 to 1835. In Pennsylvania, anti-Masons dominated the anti-Democratic opposition for a decade, and elected a governor in 1835. The record of the party in the three states demonstrates that anti-Masonry was a popular issue which served as a basis for an impressive challenge against political elites. The appeal of the issue testified to the concern of many voters about Freemasonry in antebellum society. Their resort to political action against the institution provides an important case study of party formation during the Second Party System. This study focuses on the campaigns waged by the anti-Masons in each state. In all states they effectively championed the popular Masonic issue. But at some point in the party’s development, anti-Masons also addressed other issues besides Masonry (either by linking other issues to the anti-Masonic theme or in some instances championing them directly for political gain). A comparison of the strategies used by anti-Masons highlights the differences of political cultures of each state. In all three states the anti-Masonic Party provided a dramatic example of voter mobilization in Jacksonian society. In many ways anti-Masons foreshadowed the new style of politics associated with the Second Party System. Their efforts to inform and to involve the voters were imitated by other political parties. In this regard anti-Masons did more than just mount strong political efforts in several states. They also helped to shape the character and style of American politics.

Ryu, In-Ho Lee. Freemasonry Under Catherine the Great: A Reinterpretation. Ph.D. diss., Harvard Univ., 1967. ADD, X1967, (1967): 0154.

Schuchard, Marsha Keith Manatt. Freemasonry, Secret Societies, and the Continuity of the Occult Traditions in English Literature. Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Texas, Austin, 1975. DAI, 36, no. 05A, (1975): 2792.

Shapiro, Carolyn. The Theater of the Crypt: Eighteenth Century Stagings of the Incorporated Body (Matthew Barney, Jeremy Bentham, Jean-Jacques Rousseau). Ph.D. diss., New York Univ., 2004. DAI, 65, no. 03A (2004): 768. Freemasonry enjoyed a paradoxical public secrecy responsible for its ubiquitous affiliation during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, beginning in England and spreading to the Continent and to the colonies. Its rituals, narratives and public performances had the effect of incorporating, intact, an improperly mourned sovereign body, that of the monarch, within a newly constituted non-corporeal or figurative collective body. This cultural mummification constitutes the staging ground of melancholic performance. My thesis asks how and to what effect the agency of fraternity, in its alibi of elated brotherly love, has encrypted a dead body and reiterated that encryption through various performances. These performances reify and celebrate a mummified body which had purportedly been integrated as part of the “healthy” mourning process of revolution. My thesis also makes the argument that in order to best read the texts which comprise Masonic historiography and performance, and to identify the encrypted, incorporated body within the collective fraternal body, we need a methodology which breaks down the investment in construction that so animates the Masonic glorification of “Architecture”: deconstructive reading. The tropes of Egyptology in Deconstructive theory coincide notably with those tropes which propel the ideals of Freemasonry, these tropes in both cases deployed as theoretical constructs of “the body.” With its macabre foundation upon a primal murder and its consequent hidden corpse, the eighteenth century institution of Freemasonry has embedded itself into the psyche of the current moment, calling for interventions into the regime of fraternity. At the heart of the thesis is the theoretical question of how “the body” is constituted, that is, the collective, figurative body proposed by Rousseau as the corps moral et colletif, and by the Freemasons as “fraternity,” in relation to the corporeal body, which manifests as a kind of necessary consort to the figurative body, and vice versa. Matthew Barney’s installation piece The Cremaster Cycle, the English philosopher Jeremy Bentham’s Auto-Icon, and the ritual and public theatrical performances of Masonic initiates will be examined as performances of incorporation which negotiate this relationship between figurative and corporeal body which stages the topography of the material and theoretical space of “the crypt.”

Smith, Douglas Campbell. Working the Rough Stone: Freemasonry and Society in Eighteenth-Century Russia. Ph.D. diss., Univ. California, Los Angeles, 1996. DAI, 57, no. 06A (1996): 2632. Published: Working the Rough Stone: Freemasonry and Society in Eighteenth-Century Russia (DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois Univ. Press, 1999. 272p.) This dissertation explores Russia’s eighteenth-century Masonic movement, a major social and cultural phenomenon comprising over 3,000 Masons active in more than 130 lodges. Attempting to avoid the unmistakable teleology and anachronisms that color the established historiography, which has conceptualized the history of the lodges as a chapter in the history of the Russian intelligentsia, this work situates Masonry within the specific socio-historical context in which it operated and uses Masonry as an entry point into an examination of the local logic of eighteenth-century Russian society. Informed by recent investigations into the history of the public sphere, or civil society, in the Old Regime societies of western Europe, this study examines the lodges against the background of Russian society in order not only to assess their relationship to this broad social topography but also to rethink our understanding of Russian society itself. It demonstrates the existence of a Russian public sphere composed of the print market, on the one hand, and of circles, clubs, societies, salons, as well as Masonic lodges, on the other. In addition, through an examination of the public debate over Freemasonry, this dissertation sheds light on the development of the modern notion of public opinion in the eighteenth century. This essay also seeks to disclose the sources of Freemasonry’s appeal by illuminating the chief aim of Masonic practice as well as the salient features of the Masons’ mental world. Seeking to distinguish themselves as men of superior moral and social worth, the Masons envisioned the lodge as society’s sole seat of virtue and enlightenment within which they could devote themselves to a specific program of self-improvement. By “working the rough stone,” Russia’s Masons sought to reform their morals and to refine their manners and to become civilized, enlightened, and moral beings. Freemasonry played a major role in the construction of personal and social identities based upon novel ideas of civility and politeness that were then acquiring increasing importance among Russia’s educated classes as the primary signs of social distinction in a new economy of status.

Suckert, Steven. Jesuits, Freemasons, Illuminati, and Jacobins: Conspiracy Theories, Secret Societies, and Politics in Late Eighteenth-Century Germany. Ph.D. diss., State Univ. New York, Binghamton, 1993. DAI, 54, no. 04A, (1993): 1506. During the eighteenth century, conspiracy theories played an important, though often overlooked, role in political discourse. Enlightened writers, revolutionary politicians, and counter-revolutionary journalists all used the rhetoric and imagery of conspiracy to denounce and discredit their opponents and to deprive them of legitimacy. In this age, conspiracy theorists of all types attempted to gain influence by bringing their claims before the court of public opinion. This dissertation first discusses the role of the conspiracy theory in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Age of Reason; then it examines two major plot legends concerning Freemasonry and secret societies: the Crypto-Catholic Plot Myth and the Illuminati conspiracy thesis. In the first myth, a group of enlightened writers, including F. Nicolai, J. J. C. Bode, and J. E. Biester, charged that the Jesuits had infiltrated Freemasonry and were using it to destroy the Enlightenment and restore Catholicism. In the 1790s, some German intellectuals, including several who had been denounced in the Crypto-Catholic plot scare, claimed that the Illuminati Order (a radical, enlightened secret society) was engaged in fomenting rebellion and had caused the French Revolution. The dissertation attempts to prove the four following points: (1) that conspiracy theories were a familiar part of the political discourse of the eighteenth century; (2) that the Crypto-Catholic plot scare and the crises then affecting German Freemasonry played an important role in the birth of the Illuminati conspiracy thesis; (3) the German Illuminati conspiracy theorists used this legend to wreak vengeance on their old enemies; and (4) that these anti-revolutionaries were among the first writers to portray German universities as nests of revolutionaries.

Sura, Josef. Die Einflussnahme der Freimaurerei auf Karitative und Sozialpolitische Einrichtungen in Oesterreich in der Zwischenkriegszeit; trans. title: The Influence of Austrian Freemasonry on Sociological and Welfare Institutions During the Period 1918-1939. Ph.D. diss., Universitaet Wien, Austria, 1991. DAI, 54, no. 03C, (1991): 0723. Freemasonry was introduced to Austria around 1750 and was very active during the regency of Emperor Joseph II (1740-1780). After 1792 the fraternity was strictly forbidden by the Emperor Franz II (I) and his successors. Only after 1867 did it become possible to install lodges in Hungary while any activity of lodges was still prohibited in Austria. Only clubs or similar societies were allowed in the Austrian part of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. After the collapse of the Monarchy in 1918 the installation of a Grand Lodge of Austria became finally possible. Several lodges which worked under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge were able to render excellent humanitarian and welfare performance during the period 1918-1938. A great number of brethren were active in societies and associations which were also founded and maintained by Austrian Freemasonry. The Austrian minister of Social Affairs, Ferdinand Hanusch, a brother of the “Lessing” Lodge in Vienna, created a complete new social service system for the country and its people. Professor Dr. Julius Tandler, another prominent Freemason, established a Public Health Department with attached services for the City of Vienna, which was adopted by many other countries later. A close connection between Freemasonry, Masonic institutions and the Social Democratic Party may easily be noticed during this period. This constellation enabled Austrian Freemasonry to work for the best for their country and its population. New ideas found their way into Austrian society during these years. Freemasonry ended in Austria when German troops occupied the country in March 1938.

Thornton, Joe Frank. The Relationship of Freemasonry to the Structure, Organization, and Administration of Public School Education in Texas, 1861-1885. Ph.D. diss., Texas A & M Univ., 1970. DAI, 31, no. 05A, (1970): 2083.

Thorton, M. Crescentia, Sister. The Church and Freemasonry in Brazil, 1827-1875: A Study in Regalism. Ph.D. diss., Catholic Univ. of America, 1948. ADD, W1948, (1948): 0099.

Triber, Jayne Ellen. A True Republican: The Life of Paul Revere. Ph.D. diss., Brown Univ., 1995. DAI, 56, no. 08A, (1995): 3283. A biography of Paul Revere affords the opportunity to explore several topics of interest to historians of the Revolutionary and Early National periods, including the meaning and attraction of republicanism for artisans, the importance of Freemasonry in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, and the development of early American industry. Through an analysis of Revere’s letters and business correspondence, his various businesses, products, and customers, Masonic records, and other primary sources ranging from diaries to government documents, I trace his economic, social, and political life from his days as a Son of Liberty to his transformation from artisan to merchant and manufacturer in the Early Republic. Revere’s long-standing connections among Boston’s artisans, mariners, and Freemasons made him a valuable asset to Boston’s Revolutionary leaders. As a master goldsmith--an elite among his fellow artisans but a man of mere middling rank in colonial society—Revere served as a bridge between the “bully boys” of Boston’s waterfront and the Harvard-educated leaders who needed to mobilize such men in the Revolutionary cause. He, in turn, was exhilarated by his association with these genteel, classically-educated men, and the promise of liberty, equality, and opportunity that devotion to republicanism promised. Republicanism offered Revere the chance for economic success and social distinction, but it also called upon him to practice the principles of honor, integrity, virtue, and benevolence. Intellectual historians have generally treated Paul Revere as a footnote in histories of the American Revolution: the patriot-silversmith and trusted messenger of Boston’s Revolutionary leaders. Social historians cannot quite fit this master artisan turned manufacturer into their model of the role of laborers and journeymen artisans in the Revolution. A significant purpose of this work is to test the value of biography to historical analysis and to apply the disciplines of both intellectual and social history to a study of the life and mind of Paul Revere and the age in which he lived.

Uhalde, Seven Daniel. Citizen and World-Citizen: Civic Patriotism and Cosmopolitanism in Eighteenth Century Hamburg, Germany. Ph.D. diss., Univ. California, Berkeley, 1984. DAI, 45, no. 09A, (1984): 2970. Among European writers during the Enlightenment, cosmopolitanism was the prevailing notion of social identification, claiming the individual was a “citizen” of the whole world. In politically and socially fragmented Germany, the beginning of the eighteenth century found cosmopolitanism conjoined with local patriotism. The rational individual was a good citizen of the world by being the same in his community. By the last decades of the century, however, the two were thought incompatible with, even opposed to, one another. This study traces this evolution, focusing on the city republic of Hamburg, and uses it to analyze a growing social particularization tied to the assertion of greater individualism and personal autonomy. Using the concept of a “mediating agency”—a social entity through which, by belonging to it, the individual identifies himself as cosmopolitan, patriot or both—a pattern is traced from the first half of the century when the community was the mediating agency, providing the social base for the conjunction of cosmopolitanism and civic patriotism, and when the community along with its traditional ways were still held paramount above the individual’s self-interest to just after mid-century when new, private organizations such as Freemasonry and the so-called “Patriotic Society” emerged as new mediating agencies. As trends progressed, soon for some a network of intellectual circles served this purpose while for a few this particularization reached its climax when their own individuality became decisive. These men no longer served the community in the traditional modes of a century earlier, even avoided them, and used cosmopolitanism as their justification, thus leading to the new sense that it and patriotism were now conflicting. Individual autonomy was now paramount, that one served as his individualism required rather than as the community demanded. These local trends indicate broader ones significant for the future of liberalism and republicanism in Germany: the emergence of notions that true patriotism was private rather than political and freedom meant freedom from participation rather than to participate, developments in the course of modernization in Germany which severely undermined democratic impulses there already before the French Revolution.

Varedi, Ahmad. Mahammad ‘Ali Furughi, Zuka Al-Mulk (1877-1942): A Study in the Role of Intellectuals in Modern Iranian Politics. Ph.D. diss., Univ. Utah, 1992. DAI, 53, no. 08A, (1992): 2949. Muhammad ‘Ali Furughi Zuka al-Mulk (1877-1942) was one of the leading intellectual politicians of the first half of twentieth century Iran. He belonged to a small group of modern intellectuals who took advantage of the new opportunity brought about by the Constitutional Revolution and became involved in politics. His career included teaching, Freemasonry, presidency of the parliament, and premiership under the Pahlavi Shahs. He also wrote, translated, and edited a large number of books. In view of this versatility, the study of Furughi’s life offers an inherent interest. Furthermore, it constitutes a significant part of modern Iranian history for a period of sixty-five years. The present work on Furughi is intended as a small contribution to the study of modern Iranian history.

Walker, Corey David Bazemore. "The Freemasonry of the Race": The Cultural Politics of Ritual, Race, and Place in Postemancipation Virginia. Ph.D. diss., The College of William and Mary, 2001. DAI, 62, no. 12A (2001): 4218. African American cultural and social history has neglected to interrogate fully a crucial facet of African American political, economic, and social life: African American Freemasonry. “The Freemasonry of the Race”: The Cultural Politics of Ritual, Race, and Place in Postemancipation Virginia seeks to remedy this neglect. This project broadly situates African American Freemasonry in the complex and evolving relations of power, peoples, and polities of the Atlantic world. The study develops an interpretative framework that not only recognizes the organizational and institutional aspects of African American Freemasonry, but also interprets it as a discursive space in and through which articulations of race, class, gender, and place are theorized and performed. “The Freemasonry of the Race” presents a critical cartography of African American Freemasons’ responses to the social and political exigencies of the postemancipation period. The study connects the developments of African American Freemasonry in the Atlantic world with the every day culture of African American Freemasonry in Charlottesville, Virginia from the conclusion of the Civil War until the turn of the century. Utilizing African American Freemasonry as a critical optic, the major question this study attempts to respond to is: How can we historicize and (re)present African American Freemasonry in order to rethink the cultural and political space of the postemancipation period in the United States? Borrowing and blending a number of methodologies from social history, literary theory, and cultural studies, “The Freemasonry of the Race”: The Cultural Politics of Ritual, Race, and Place in Postemancipation Virginia presents a set of analytic essays on African American Freemasonry, each intimately concerned with deciphering some of the principles that organized and (re)constructed various regimes of power and normality along the fault lines of race, sex, gender, class, and place. By thinking and working through African American Freemasonry in such a manner, this project seeks to open up new interdisciplinary horizons in African American cultural and social history.

Wallace, Maurice Orlando. Constructing the Black Masculine: Identity and Ideology in African-American Men’s Literature and Culture. Ph.D. diss., Duke Univ., 1995. DAI, 56, no. 09A, (1995): 3587. This dissertation locates and theorizes the intersecting anxieties of race, gender, and sexuality in African American men’s expressive culture, especially literary autobiography. Throughout the black cultural and literary production of nineteenth- and twentieth-century America, from the inception of the black Freemasonry movement in 1775 to the present, maleness (after blackness, of course) appears as one of the severest anxieties (or ‘ego-disturbances,’ following Freud) of the African American male subject. Yet it is little remarked upon in the critical tradition. My dissertations treats the critical silence about black maleness per se and explores the epistemological possibilities for a coherent theory of African American male identity construction. Following Eve Sedgwick’s lead with Epistemology of the Closet, I argue for the presence of closet-like constructions (real and metaphoric) permeating the literature and homosocial cultures of African American men as tropes for psychological self-alienation and identity coverture not exclusively sexual. The literary and cultural suppression (i.e. closeting) of anything like the full disclosure of the principals’ racial, gender and sexual ambivalence explains the dearth of critical writing that takes up these matters. In short, “Constructing the Black Masculine” seeks to understand the representation of masculinity in a series of significant texts and contexts of black male subjecthood from 1775 to 1994, in order to determine how social preoccupations with race, gender, and sexuality inflect not only the writerly record but the larger issue of the social ideal of black masculinity.

Weisberger, Richard William. The Cultural and Organizational Functions of Speculative Freemasonry During the Enlightenment: A Study of the Craft in London, Paris, Prague, and Vienna. Ph.D. diss., Univ. Pittsburgh, 1980. DAI, 42, no. 01A, (1980): 0341. The thesis explores the relationship between Speculative Freemasonry and the Enlightenment and concentrates on the functions of the Craft in London, Paris, Prague, and Vienna. Modern Masonry was established in 1717 in London, and, under the leadership of the Newtonian John T. Desaguliers, created lodges to confer degrees which explained Newtonian, deistic, and Whiggish concepts. These lodges also occupied an important place in London coffeehouses and tavern life and especially consisted of enlighteners from the Royal Society and from other learned societies in early Hanoverian London. Masonry also became well rooted in Paris. Established in 1725, Parisian Modern Masonry served as a valuable source of Anglophilism, providing French Masons with explanations concerning deism, Newtonianism, and natural liberties. Modern lodges also enabled Parisian Masons to learn about the procedures of constitutional government and to mix with British nobles in the French capital. Despite being dominated by Scottish Rite bodies and being torn by their factional disputes between 1740 and 1769, Parisian Masonry during the early 1770’s united under the banner of the Grand Orient. Formed by the Grand Orient in 1776 as a Masonic learned society, the Parisian Lodge of the Nine Sisters was governed by such Masters as Jerome Lalande and Benjamin Franklin. It sponsored banquets and lectures, funded lycees and musees, and became a center for advocates of the American Revolution and for proponents of state reforms for France. Until the closing of the lodge in 1792, such Parisian enlighteners as Gebelin, Pastoret, and Cabanis played an active part in it. Masonry also played central roles in Prague and Vienna. Modern Masonry first appeared in Prague in 1726, served as a source of West European culture, primarily enlisted support from Bohemian nobles, and sponsored numerous cultural and social events. By the 1770’s, Prague became the regional capital of Strict Observance Masonry, and its leadership funded hospitals, libraries, and schools. Functioning first under Modern Masonry and then under the Strict Observance System, Viennese Masonry in 1781 became the center of the Zinnendorf System. The Viennese True Harmony Lodge, which was established under the authority of the Zinnendorf Rite in 1781, operated as a Masonic learned society and recruited to its ranks scientists, physicians, writers, and musicians. Some members contributed articles and poems about imperial reforms and Masonic philosophy to the lodge’s literary journal, and others wrote articles about geology for its scientific journal. As a result of revolutionary threats, the Enlightenment activities of the True Harmony ended in 1786. Several conclusions were reached in this thesis. The study illustrates that Masonic rites contained major concepts of the Enlightenment and those of civil religions and that Masonic lodges and learned societies served as cultural and social agencies for the promotion of the Enlightenment in each of the four examined cities. Materials from several libraries were used for this thesis. Sources concerning Masonry came from the collections of the Iowa and Pennsylvania Grand Lodge Libraries. The writings of Masonic enlighteners are primarily found in the collections of the American Philosophical Society and the Library Company of Philadelphia.

Wendelmont, Thomas Leroy. Masonic Allusions and Themes in the Works of Rudyard Kipling. Ph.D. diss., Univ. South Florida, 1980. DAI, 41, no. 06A, (1980): 2622. The effect on Kipling’s work of his lifelong interest in Freemasonry is an aspect of his writing that has received little critical notice and yet it is at the core of much of his work. Kipling frequently made overt use of Masonic ritual, beliefs and symbolic language, but more frequently relied upon allusive, obscure and cryptic allusions which are completely missed by non-Masons and easily overlooked by many Masons. The reader who misses these allusions may be led into erroneous or incomplete interpretations of the works in which they appear, particularly since Freemasonry often functions in apposition to Kipling’s religious and imperialist beliefs. Although religion and imperialism are undeniably major elements in much of Kipling’s work, a great amount of that work that is often interpreted as having solely religious or imperialist implications can be shown, with equal plausibility, to have a correlative basis in the dogma, traditions and symbolism of Freemasonry. For one to demonstrate the influence of Freemasonry on Kipling’s work it is necessary to perceive the critical extremes regarding his religious and imperialist views; to examine the background of Kipling’s experiences with, and interest in, the Masonic Fraternity; to discuss the language and ideas of Freemasonry and the application of its philosophy to Kipling’s work; and to closely examine his use of Masonic allusions and themes in both his verse and his prose fiction. Although no attempt has been made to provide comprehensive literary evidence of Kipling’s imperialism or of his religion, which are unquestioned features in his writing, it will be shown that his commitment to Freemasonry must be considered as a tempering force to his imperialism and an alternate doctrine to any orthodox religious viewpoint. Kipling’s interest in Freemasonry extended throughout his adult life, from the time he became a Mason in 1886, at the age of twenty, until his death in 1936, at the age of seventy. He was drawn to its principle tenets of Fraternity, Tolerance and Professional Brotherhood. Allusions to the fraternity permeate his verse and his prose from Plain Tales from the Hills, in 1888, to his last published work, Limits and Renewals, in 1932. Although it is not implied that every time Kipling wrote a story or poem that he did so with any conscious idea of presenting specific Masonic ideas or beliefs, it is shown that Masonic creed and teaching pervasively underscored so much of Kipling’s personal philosophy that Masonic themes, language and symbolism permeate the entire range of his work, resulting in a lessening of the harshness of both his imperialism and the dogmatic extremes in the religion of his Wesleyan grandfathers. Although there are fewer allusions to Freemasonry in his verse than in his prose, the thematic influence is noticeable throughout the entire range and there are a number of poems in which there are definite Masonic references and themes. These allusions are of several types, from brief “one-liners” to poems such as “The Mother-Lodge,” which are Masonic in their entirety. Kipling’s prose fiction also demonstrates a wide variety of Masonic allusions which, as with the verse, vary from the brief to complete stories in which Freemasonry is at the very core of the story itself. In all, forty-one separate works of prose are examined and their Masonic implications made evident. The net result of close explication of Masonic allusions in Kipling’s work conclusively demonstrates the influence of Freemasonry on his writing, his commitment to Masonic ideals, and the importance of Freemasonry as a philosophy at least equal to his imperialist and religious points of view.

Williams, Loretta Janice. Black Freemasonry: A Middle-Class Response of Racial Pillarization. Ph.D. diss., State Univ. New York, Buffalo, 1977. DAI, 38, no. 03A, (1977): 1695.

Williams, Lyle Thomas. Journey to the Center of the Earth: Descent and Initiation in Selected Science Fiction. Ph.D. diss., Indiana Univ., 1983. DAI, 44, no. 03A, (1983): 0746. This dissertation is an analysis of a body of science fiction narratives, written in the last half of the nineteenth or first half of the twentieth century, that depict the earth as hollow or that involve subterranean journeys. The analysis is particularly concerned with patterns of heroic initiation and of initiation into various sacred and occult traditions including shamanism, Rosicrucianism, and Freemasonry. In these novels, the journey into the earth is both a descent to the land of the dead and a return to the womb. The latter permits the protagonist to be reborn and the former permits him to conquer death by facing the ordeals of hell. In some cases, the paradigm expands to include the entire race in its pattern of death and rebirth. The earth’s interior is thought of as the womb that gave rise to humanity; it is the Garden of Eden, the seat of Darwinian evolution, or a combination of these. It becomes a symbol of the Jungian collective unconscious, where the protagonist relives the experiences of this primordial ancestors and learns the arcane secrets of the origin of life and the power that sustains life. The earth’s interior is also where humanity returns when the cycle is complete and apocalypse approaches. The dissertation begins by tracing the history of the descent and hollow-earth motifs from ancient times. An analysis of Edgar Rice Burroughs’ Pellucidar novels (At the Earth’s Core, Pellucidar, and five others) focuses on return to primordial times and the progression through heroic and shamanic initiation. The analysis of Edward Bulwer-Lytton’s The Coming Race demonstrates that it is a profoundly Rosicrucian novel. John Uri Lloyd’s Etidorhpa is shown to be based on the 1826 disappearance in New York of William Morgan, who had written a book revealing secret Masonic ceremonies. Lloyd incorporates parts of Morgan’s revelations in Etidorhpa. Willis George Emerson’s The Smoky God and Charles Willing Beale’s The Secret of the Earth both represent the earth’s interior as the site of the Garden of Eden and are compared to V. A. Obuchev’s Plutoniia and Jules Verne’s Voyage au centre de la Terre, which represent it as a showcase of the stages of Darwinian evolution. In E. M. Forster’s “The Machine Stops,” Will N. Harben’s The Land of the Changing Sun, Gabriel de Tarde’s Fragment d’histoire Future (Underground Man) and H. G. Wells The Time Machine, the human race, in part or whole, has returned to the earth’s creative matrix where it faces final destruction.

Wussow, Walter Jack. French Freemasonry and the Threat of War, 1917-1937. Ph.D. diss., Univ. Colorado, Boulder, 1966. DAI, 28, no. 03A, (1966): 1043.




See Character Counts—Freemasonry in Christianity &
in Our Founding Fathers’ Original Intent Slays the Anti-Mason Frankenstein